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Spotting bad science: A Rough Guide to SPOTTING BAD Being able to evaluate the evidence behind a scientific claim is important. Being able to recognise bad science reporting, or faults in scientific studies, is equally important. These 12 points will help you separate the science from the pseudoscience. 1. SENSATIONALISED HEADLINES 7. UNREPRESENTATIVE SAMPLES USED In human trials, subjects are selected that are representative of a larger population. If the sample is different from the population as a whole, then the conclusions from the trial may be biased towards a particular Article headlines are commonly designed to entice viewers into clicking on and reading the article. At times, they can over-simplify the findings of scientific research. At worst, they sensationalise and misrepresent them. Aa outcome. 8. NO CONTROL GROUP USED 2. MISINTERPRETED RESULTS In clinical trials, results from test subjects should be compared to a 'control group' not given the substance being tested. Groups should also be allocated randomly. In general experiments, a control test should be used where all variables are controlled. News articles can distort or misinterpret the findings of research for the sake of a good story, whether intentionally or otherwise. If possible, try to read the original research, rather than relying on the article based on it for information. 3. CONFLICTS OF INTEREST 9. NO BLIND TESTING USED Many companies will employ scientists to carry out and publish research - whilst this doesn't necessarily invalidate the research, it should be analysed with this in mind. Research can also be misrepresented for personal or financial gain. To try and prevent bias, subjects should not know if they are in the test or the control group. In 'double blind' testing, even researchers don't know which group subjects are in until after testing. Note, blind testing isn't always feasible, or ethical. 4. CORRELATION & CAUSATION 10. SELECTIVE REPORTING OF DATA Be wary of any confusion of correlation and causation. A correlation between variables Also known as 'cherry picking', this involves selecting data from results which supports the conclusion of the research, whilst ignoring those that do not. If a research paper draws conclusions from a selection of its results, not all, it may be guilty of this. doesn't always mean one causes the other. Global warming increased since the 1800s, and pirate numbers decreased, but lack of pirates doesn't cause global warming. 11. UNREPLICABLE RESULTS 5. UNSUPPORTED CONCLUSIONS Speculation can often help to drive science forward. However, studies should be clear on the facts their study proves, and which conclusions are as yet unsupported ones. A statement framed by speculative language may require further evidence to confirm. Results should bereplicable byindependent research, and tested over a wide range of conditions (where possible) to ensure they are consistent. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence - that is, much more than one independent study! ??? 6. PROBLEMS WITH SAMPLE SIZE 12. NON-PEER REVIEWED MATERIAL Peer review is an important part of the scientific process. Other scientists appraise and critique studies, before publication in a journal. Research that has not gone through this process is not as reputable, and may be flawed. In trials, the smaller a sample size, the lower the confidence in the'results from that sample. Conclusions drawn can still be valid, and in some cases small samples are unavoidable, but larger samples often give more representative results. © COMPOUND INTEREST 2015 - WWw.COMPOUNDCHEM.COM | @COMPOUNDCHEM (Ci CC Shared under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence. ND BY NC Spotting bad science

Spotting bad science

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Analyzing memes like modern art (part 2).: Aitoff Albers Augu Baker Berghaus Boggs Bosse Bromley onewhoeatswindows ah yes... a classic work of art depicting the various states of man however, this is a unique take on it that ive never seen before. you see, as these eight states each represent a distinct and separate emotion that an individual may feel, putting them together in one astounding masterpiece allows the viewer to view the differences in each, and think upon themself with respect to these separate states of being. their close proximity to one another highlights their unique qualities, and asserts that despite the fact that they are individuals they are interconnected. first, we are able to see that the states each contain varying degrees and styles of distortion, each caused by the environment pictured behind them. because the environments are represented in a rather abstract manner, they allow the viewer to project their own plight upon them and further relate themself to the piece. additionally, the distortions of each individual state are shown to be in great variety. although some appear to be more subtle than others, they are all still differentiated in some way. this reflects the real life instances of these states, in which some distort the individual's personality and behavior more than others finally, each of the states are labeled with their own unique names. as with people, the states of man are all unique and different, and the artist has chose to clearly define this in the most widely understood and simple way possible: giving them each a name. the artist certainly wanted the viewer to understand that the states of man are not the same as one another, just as they are. in this, they relate more to the viewer and allow them to reflect on their current state of being without the need for complex imagery. i would say that this piece is an excellent representation of the human condition, and that everyone, young and old, should receive the chance to take in its message Analyzing memes like modern art (part 2).

Analyzing memes like modern art (part 2).

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Demogorgon add-ons | PATCH 3.2.0: VISCOUS WEBBING BLACK HEART ROTTEN PUMPKIN RAT TAIL RAT LIVER UNCOMMON OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON COMMON OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON COMMON OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON COMMON OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON COMMON OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON A soggy pile of salty, soft liver. Slightly increases Killer movement speed while charging Of The Abyss. A chewy rat tail for The Demogorgon to consume. Slightly decreases the time taken to open a portal. Wet, elastic webs that broaden the interdimensional tunnels Slightly increases the time taken by Survivors to seal a portal. A black fermented heart ripped from the chest of a tentacled creature in the Upside Down. . Slightly increases Of The Abyss activation charge speed. Pumpkin flesh infected by the rotten soil in Hawkins. Increases the total number of available portals by 1 BARB'S GLASSES STICKY LINING UNCOMMON OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON ROTTEN GREEN TRIPE MEW'S GUTS UNCOMMON OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON VIOLET WAXCAP UNCOMMON OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON UNCOMMON OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON RARE OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON Rotten tripe that fuels The Demogorgon. Slightly increases Killer movement Speed while traversing the Upside Down. A broken pair of glasses that traveled to the Upside Down. Slightly increases the power recovery speed of traversing the Upside Down. A fetid, viscous layer that covers and expands the interdimensional tunnels. Slightly increases the radius in which Survivors can be detected by Of The Abyss. The tasty guts of an unfortunate victim. Increases the total number of available portals by 1 Slightly increases Of The Abyss activation charge speed A dark fleshed mushroom from the Upside Down that allows The Demogorgon to distort the senses in its prey Slightly increases the duration of the Undetectable status effect applied to The Killer when emerging from a portal. BRASS CASE LIGHTER VERMILLION WEBCAP THORNY VINES ELEVEN'S SODA DEER LUNG RARE OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON VERY RARE OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON RARE OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON RARE OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON RARE OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON A lighter used to ignite trouble Survivors under the effect of a portal suffers from the Blindness status effect. Once out of contact with Thick, thorny vines that stretch and reinforce the interdimensional tunnels. Slightly increases the time taken by Survivors to seal a portal Slightly increases the radius in which Survivors can be detected by Of The Abyss. A raw, rubbery lung that reinvigorates The Demogorgon. .Moderately increases Killer movement Speed while traversing the Upside Down. A bright red poisonous mushroom from the Upside Down. Moderately increases the duration of the Undetectable status effect applied to The Killer when emerging from a portal. A soda can charged with psychic energy. . Moderately increases the power recovery speed of traversing the Upside Down. the portal, this effect persists for 45 seconds. "Emits a strong electromagnetic field: it must have come into contact with the Upside Down." - Hawkins National Laboratory "Still experimenting with this specimen, so far our results are inconsistent.- Hawkins National Laboratory UPSIDE DOWN RESIN UNKNOWN EGG VERY RARE OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON RED MOSS LERPROSE LICHEN LIFEGUARD WHISTLE VERY RARE OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON ULTRA RARE OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON ULTRA RARE OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON VERY RARE OF THE ABYSS ADD-ON A sticky, flammable sap that fortifies the gateway to the interdimensional tunnels. .Moderately increases the time taken by Survivors to seal a portal. A large, warm egg coated in gruesome webbing. Considerably increases the power recovery speed of traversing the Upside Down. A psychedelic moss that grows on tree barks in the Upside Down. Colliding witha dropped pallet while using Shred will automatically destroy the dropped pallet. . Slightly increases Of The Abyss activation charge speed A potent lichen that grows like dust on the rocks in the Upside Down. . Reveals the aura of all injured Survivors while traversing the Upside Down. A rusty, metal whistle that once ruled the Hawkins public pool. . Survivors under the effect of a portal suffers from the Exhausted status effect. Once out of contact with "A large egg was sighted in the Upside Down, but no sample survived the trip to the lab for proper examination." - Hawkins National Laboratory the portal, this effect persists for 5 seconds. "A sample taken from the bark of the tree once used as a gate. So far our conclusion as to its effect are inconclusive."- Hawkins National Laboratory "One small dose can cause severe hallucinations." - Hawkins National Laboratory "Emits a strong electromagnetic field: it must have come into contact with the Upside Down." - Hawkins National Laboratory "Consuming its leaf enhances athletic performance and causes euphoria.-Hawkins National Laboratory www. - ER ADD .ADD Demogorgon add-ons | PATCH 3.2.0

Demogorgon add-ons | PATCH 3.2.0

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I need an entire book about this.: the-quasar-hero I'm the real estate agent that sells obviously haunted houses to nice white families that want to get away from it all. lamborghinea-pig I would like to give you my business. I'm tryin to die penniless and leave nothing but a found footage film to my kids in the will the-quasar-hero Then oh boy, do I have the forest cottage for you! Far from anyone that could help you, it has a gorgeous view of a lake where dozens of people have gone missing. There's a rumor of a killer that raises from the water, but this place has an excellent porch lamborghinea-pig Is there a small, dark washing room in the basement corner that's at least ten degrees colder than the rest of the house? That's a must. the-quasar-hero Yes. And there's a latch window that always seems to swing open in the middle of the night. lamborghinea-pig Wonderful! I especially love how cell receptionist patchy at best, making any attempted outgoing call to the police as dramatic as possible. the-quasar-hero I think you'll also love how it'll immediately become pitch black as soon as the clock strikes 5:00 pm no matter the time of year. There's also no stars for some reason lamborghinea-pig Did the previous owner leave any religious iconography that could slowly appear to distort and corrupt over time, or will I need to furnish that myself? the-quasar-hero Let's just say I definitely didn't put these area rugs here myself to cover a few ornate symbols drawn in blood lamborghinea-pig You've got a sale! weaponizedhorse This post deserves so many more notes. I could not breathe the other day trying to read this out loud to my mom it was so fucking funny Source: the-quasar-hero 77,475 notes I need an entire book about this.
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