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American, History, and Mars: mg ame of the first humums cm Mars, and finding Martians. Would they be ced humans limagine their society, it wod almost cerainily be extremely Sg seen in umam history They most ikely would hrve umique civilizations all them thur This is a simillar ation Draring the rise of emgimes amd civilization in Eurasia, somethimge very Tg n the Aficn (Bunto Afical and American (Native Americans, ans and Mund Builders)oomtimentK, 1what one woold today call ves, while having some sin rities to the standard These alhe hon something diffierent entirely. Their main differences were ne Warfare is quite a large diference between these groups of humans, od hasis no build of for the ocher point. arfare was one of the largest differences between civilizations and 2s civilizations were concermed, they had massive wars. Wafare As wiizations in particular was catastrophic; it was large with ofien times at enample of this is, is Alexander the Greaf's conquest of the Persian ched an invasion/ conquest of Pr-1 - cting endire cities (including the Ul47 of these wars- thousands of pec nd invasions at a massive scale, This doc looks a bit long st wars waged by second wave Do you want Grammarly to check this document, or are you just reading? large). In Fact, there is a theor ES CHECK ITH World Volume 1 Through the fifteenth The differnce between an an entire letter grade: checking your essay after printing

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Another One, Apparently, and Ass: clarenecessities there's something endlessly hilarious to me about the phrase "hotly debated" in an academic context. like i just picture a bunch of nerds at podiums & one's like "of course there was a paleolithic bear cult in Northern Eurasia" and another one just looks him in the eye and says "il kill you in real life, kevin" crockpotcauldron The Milton scholars screamed and argued about how the serpent was supposed to move before it crawled on its belly. Dr Matthews, enraged that Dr. Goldstein could believe the serpent bounced around on the coiled end of its tail, flipped over the conference table. "Satan is not a fucking pogo stick!" he howled. ossacordis I heard a story once about two microbiologists at a conference who took it out into the parking lot to have a literal fistfight over taxonomy winchysteria have i told this story yet? idk but it's good. The Orangutan Story: my american lit professor went to this poe conference. like to be clear this is a man who has a doctorate in being a book nerd. he reads moby dick to his four-year-old son. and poe is one of the cornerstones of american literature, right, so this should be right up his alley? wrong. apparently poe scholars are like, advanced. there is a branch of edgar allen poe scholarship that specifically looks for coded messages based on the number of words per line and letters per word poe uses. my professor, who has a phd in american literature, realizes he is totally out of his depth. but he already committed his day to this so he thinks fuck it! and goes to a panel on racism in poe's works, because that's relevant to his interests. background info: edgar allen poe was a broke white alcoholic from virginia who wrote horror in the first half of the 19th century. rule 1 of Horror Academia is that horror reflects the cultural anxieties of its time (see: my other professor's sermon abt how zombie stories are popular when people are scared of immigrants, or that purge movie that was literally abt the election). since poe's shit is a product of 1800s white southern culture, you can safely assume it's at least a little about race. but the racial subtext is very open to interpretation, and scholars believe all kinds of different things about what poe says about race (if he says anything), and the poe stans get extremely tense about it. so my professor sits down to watch this panel and within like five minutes a bunch of crusty academics get super heated about poe's theoretical racism. because it's academia, though, this is limited to poorly concealed passive aggression and forceful tones of inside voice. one professor is like "this isn't even about race!" and another professor is like "this proves he's a racist!" people are interrupting each other. tensions are rising. a panelist starts saying that poe is like writing a critique of how racist society was, and the racist stuff is there to prove that racism is stupid, and that on a metaphorical level the racist philosophy always loses- then my professor, perhaps in a bid to prove that he too is a smart literature person, loudly calls: "BUT WHAT ABOUT THE ORANGUTAN?" some more background: in poe's well-known short story "the murder in the rue morgue," two single ladies-a lovely old woman and her lovely daughter who takes care of her, aka super vulnerable and respectable people-are violently killed. the murderer turns out to be not a person, but an orangutan brought back by a sailor who went to like burma or something and it's pretty goddamn racially coded, like they reeeeally focus on all this stuff about coarse hairs and big hands and superhuman strength and chattering that sounds like people talking but isn't actually. if that's intentional, then he's literally written an analogy about how black people are a threat to vulnerable white women, which is classic white supremacist shit. BUT if he really only meant for it to be an orangutan, then it's a whole other metaphor about how colonialism pillages other countries and brings their wealth back to europe and that's REALLY gonna bite them in the ass one day. klansman or komrade? it all hangs on this. so the place goes dead fucking silent as every giant ass poe stan in the room is immediately thrust into a series of war flashbacks: the orangutan argument, violently carried out over seminar tables, in literary journals, at graduate student house parties, the spittle flying, the wine and coffee spilled, the friendships torn- the red faces and bulging veins-curses thrown and teaching posts abandoned-panels just like this one fallen into chaos-distant sirens, skies falling, the dog-eared norton critical editions slicing through the air like sabres-the textual support! o, the quotes! they gaze at this madman in numb disbelief, but he could not have known. nay, he was a literary theorist, a 17th-century man, only a visitor to their haunted land. he had never heard the whistle of the mortars overhead. he had never felt the cold earth under his cheek as he prayed for god's deliverance. and yet he would have broken their fragile peace and brought them all back into the trenches. much later, when my professor told this story to a poe nerd friend, the guy said the orangutan thing was a one of the biggest landmines in their field. he said it was a reliable discussion ruiner that had started so many shouting matches that some conferences had an actual ban on bringing it up. so my professor sits there for a second, still totally clueless. then out of the dead silence, the panel moderator stands up in his tweed jacket and yells, with the raw panic of a once- broken man: WE! DO NOT! TALK ABOUT! THE ORANGUTAN! laurajdt Look, academia is just another form of fandom with better citation practices runephoenix6769 the orangutan poe discourse story is back!! REBLOG! clarenecessities please god do not reblog #please #i am dying #long posts #loud text #free me todd 242,182 notes things heating up in the edgar allen poe fandom 馃槼馃槼
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Fall, News, and Videos: le what's the best country? Tools Settings Videos More Maps News Images a All About 164,000,000 results (0.74 seconds) Soviet Union - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org wiki Soviet Union The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a Marxist-Leninist Soviet Union sovereign state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Sovereign state Capital and largest city: Moscow; 55 45'N 37.. Historical era: 20th century Date format dd-mm-yyyy Calling code: +7 Dissolution of the Soviet Union History of the Soviet Union The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialis was a Marxist-Leninist sovereign state in Eurasia that e 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Sc republics, its government and economy were highly cen Wikipedia The dissolution of the Soviet Union The history of Soviet Russia and was the process of internal .. the Soviet Union reflects a.. More results from wikipedia.org People also ask Founded: December 30, 1922 Date dissolved: December 26, 1991 How many countries were in the Soviet Union? Population: 293 million (Jul 1991) What countries were in the Soviet Union? Government: Socialist state, Dictatorship, Totalitarianism Currencies: Soviet ruble, Russian ruble Why did the Soviet Union fall? Leader: He became a close associate of Joseph Stalin, th authoritative leader of the Soviet Union since 1924. history How did the Soviet Union start? Feedback People also search for Y > > > I knew it.

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Abc, America, and Arguing: OCTOBER 2018 | Updated February 2019 THEEPOCHTIMES.COM THE EPOCH TIMES HILLARY CLINTON UK INTEL JAMES CLAPPER SPYGATE Director of national V2 intelligence ROBERT HANNIGAN SIR ANDREW WOOD JOHN PODESTA Head of Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) Chairman of Clinton campaign Former British ambassador to Russia; contractor for Orbis Podesta and his brother, Tony, Hannigan personally flew to Washington to meet with John Brennan. He abruptly retired days after President Donald Trump's inauguration. founded the now-defunct Podesta Wood briefed Sen. John McCain on DROIT Group. He helped promote the Russia collusion narrative. the Steele dossier. He advised Steele, whom he knew from the UK Diplomatic Service, both before and after the 2016 election. In 2013, Wood was listed in court documents as a paid consultant DIEU ET MON How the Obama administration for Steele's company, Orbis. Wood knows Sir Richard Dearlove. ECENDE conspired against Donald Trump's presidential campaign DEBBIE WASSERMAN SCHULTZ DONNA BRAZILE ROBBY MOOK Campaign manager for Clinton campaign Interim chairwoman of the Democratic National Chairwoman of the DNC Committee (DNC) BY JEFF CARLSON & JASPER FAKKERT After CrowdStrike was hired to investigate the alleged Russian hack of the DNC's servers, Mook was one of the first to promote the theory that Russia was helping Trump. MERICA TALS OF A UNTES Brazile helped promote the Russia-collusion narrative. She has received a letter NIGEL INKSTER Former director of operations and intelligence for MI6 S JOHN BRENNAN, CIA director launch a counterintelligence investigation and sur- veil the campaign of candidate Donald Trump. Efforts intensified following the election through the use of coordinated leaks and the ongoing cre- ation of false narratives in the media. PYGATE WILL LIKELY BE REMEMBERED as the of inquiry from Sen. Chuck Grassley. Wasserman Schultz refused to provide the FBI access to the servers. Brennan was at the center of the creation of the Russia-collusion narrative. biggest political scandal in modern history. Obama administration officials actively colluded with the campaign of Hillary Clinton and foreign governments to affect the outcome of the 2016 presidential election. Unofficial intelligence, spy traps, and a politically funded dossier were used to Inkster has known Steele and Chris Burrows for at least 20 years. He was Sir Richard Dearlove's deputy at MI6 JAKE SULLIVAN Brennan usedunofficial foreign intelligence-includingfrom the UKand Australia- to establish a multi-agency task force. He met personally with GCHQ head Robert Hannigan during the summer of 2016 and would later use the foreign intelligence to push the FBI to open the Trump-Russia counterintelligence investigation. He and DNI Director James Clapper later helped to create the Intelligence Community assessment that was used to push the Trump-Russia narrative. NICHOLAS FISHWICK Former director of private intelligence firm PGI; former MI6 officer Senior policy adviser to Clinton campaign Along with Jennifer Palmieri, Sullivan took the lead in briefing the press on the Trump-Russia collusion story Fishwick exchanged emails related to the Steele dossier with Chris Burrows UKRAINE CONNECTION In this infographic, we explore the connections of Spygate. during the election. SIR RICHARD DEARLOVE ARTMENT Former head of MI6 JENNIFER PALMIERI At the urging of John Brennan, the FBI opened a counterintelligence investigation on Trump and conducted surveillance. On Oct. 21, 2016, the FBI obtained a FISA warrant to spy on Carter Page. The FBI may have attempted to obtain earlier FISA warrants in June/July 2016. These were reportedly denied. JOEL BENENSON Chief strategist for Clinton campaign FBI Communications director for Dearlove advised Christopher Steele and his partner Chris Burrows to work with a top British government official in order to pass along information to the FBI Dearlove described Steele as the go- the Clinton campaign ALEXANDRA CHALUPA Benenson was a strategist for Barack Obama's 2008 and 2012 presidential campaigns. He has received a letter of inquiry from Sen. Chuck Grassley. Ukrainian-American operative and consultant for the DNC Along with Jake Sullivan, Palmieri took the lead in briefing the press on the Trump-Russia collusion story. BUREAU HAKLUYT is a private strategic intelligence and advisory firm consisting mainly of former British intelligence officers. Chalupa met with top officials in the Ukrainian Embassy in Washington in an effort to expose alleged ties between President Donald Trump, Paul Manafort, and Russia. The DNC paid her $412,000 from 2004 to mid-2016, according to Federal Election Commission to person on Russia. Steele worked as an MI6 agent during Dearlove's tenure as MI6 head. Dearlove knows Stefan Halper through their mutual association with the Cambridge Intelligence Seminar He also knows Sir lain Lobban and PERKINS COIE is a law firm that represented the Clinton campaign and the Democratic National Committee. maintains ties to UK intel firm Hakluyt. records. PERKINSCOIE JAMES COMEY ANDREW MCCABE JAMES BAKER PETER STRZOK FBI deputy assistant director of counterintelligence LISA PAGE FBI director FBI deputy director FBI general counsel Special counsel to FBI Deputy Director Andrew McCabe Baker was the most senior legal counsel at the FBI. He worked Comey oversaw all FBI operations, including the exoneration of Hillary Clinton and the Trump-Russia investigation. He reported to Attorney General Loretta Lynch. Comey briefed President-elect Donald Trump on the dossier on Jan 6, 2017, at the instruction of James Clapper. Comey later leaked copies of his memos, two of which were classified, to Daniel Richman. It is likely that a special counsel would not have been appointed without Comey leaking the McCabe was involved in all aspects of the FBl's counterintelligence investigation into Trump. A text sent by FBI agent Peter Strzok describes a meeting in McCabe's office and makes reference to a so-called "insurance policy" against Trump. McCabe was fired by Attorney General Jeff Sessions on March 16, 2018. McCabe was referred by the DOJ inspector general to federal prosecutors for lying under oath about having authorized selective leaks to media. Page was a primary conduit for McCabe in the FBI's investigation of the Trump campaign. Strzok was the lead agent on both the FBI's investigation into Hillary Clinton-which resulted in an closely with Andrew McCabe and Trisha Anderson. Baker received documentation from Perkins Coie lawyer Michael Sussmann alleging Russia's Alfa Bank was communicating with Trump Tower. Baker received additional parts of the Steele dossier from Mother Jones exoneration of Clinton by James Comey-as well as the Trump-Russia investigation. She was a member of the "insurance policy" group that worked closely with Andrew McCabe. The DOJ inspector general ALEXANDER DOWNER LOUIS SUSMAN JONATHAN CLARKE Australia's high commissioner to the UK; former Australian minister for foreign affairs; former advisory board member of Hakluyt Advisory board member of Hakluyt Former director of U.S. operations at Hakluyt CROWDSTRIKE Strzok was a member of the former U.S. ambassador to the UK "insurance policy" group that worked closely with Andrew McCabe. Thousands of text messages sent between Strzok and FBI lawyer Lisa Page reveal a strong bias in favor of Clinton and against Trump. uncovered thousands of text Media reports have suggested Susman was made the U.S. Clarke co-authored several books with messages sent between her and Peter Strzok that reveal a strong bias against Trump and in favor of Clinton. Page was part of the team of special counsel Robert Mueller before being demoted on Aug. 16, 2017. Page resigned on May 4, 2018. Stefan Halper. Clarke knew Nellie Ohr and Peter Fritsch from the Wilson Center reporter David Corn. Baker is the subject of a criminal leak investigation. BOB BAUER Partner at Perkins Coie; former White House counsel to President Barack Obama Downer met with George Papadopoulos in London in May 2016. Papadopoulos allegedly told Downer that Russia had dirt on Hillary Clinton. Months later, Australia informed the United States. This would be used ambassador to the UK as a "prize for his ferocious fundraising on behalf of the Obama campaign." MARC ELIAS MICHAEL SUSSMANN Partner at Perkins Coie Partner at Perkins Coie CROWDSTRIKE Cybertechnology company Sussmann passed on information to FBI General Counsel James Baker Elias was the general counsel for Hillary Clinton's 2016 presidential campaign and John Kerry's 2004 campaign. Elias retained Fusion GPS and paid for the Steele dossier on behalf of the DNC and the Clinton Leaked diplomatic cables published by Wikileaks show Susman is also connected to Hillary Clinton. memos. CrowdStrike was hired by Perkins Coie lawyer Michael Sussmann to investigate the alleged hacking of the Democratic National Committee's servers. The FBI was refused access to independently examine the DNC servers. alleging that Russia's Alfa Bank was communicating with Trump Tower-a claim later proven false. He also passed the same information to The New York Times and possibly other media. Sussmann and Baker knew each other In 2013, Obama named Bauer to be co-chair of the Presidential Commis- sion on Election Administration. Bauer was a partner at Perkins Coie for 35 years until his retirement in May 2018. Bauer was general counsel to Obama's campaign organization, Obama for America, in 2008 and 2012, and served as general counsel to the Dem- ocratic National Committee. as an excuse for the start of the FBI's July 2016 counterintelligence investigation. Downer previously arranged one of the largest foreign donations to the Clinton Foundation: $25 million from the Australian government. Downer was on the advisory board of Hakluyt from 2008 to 2014. He also sat on the board of Chinese campaign. Elias serves on the board of Democrat super PAC Priorities USA Action. SIR IAIN LOBBAN Advisory board member of Hakluyt former director of Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) from their work at the DOJ. Sussmann was responsible for retaining CrowdStrike to examine the Democratic MICHAEL GAETA FBI agent and assistant legal attach茅 at the U.S. Embassy in Rome TRISHA ANDERSON JONATHAN MOFFA BILL PRIESTAP FBI analyst Principal deputy general counsel, head of the National Security and Cyber Law Branch Assistant director and head of JOSEPH PIENTKA counterintelligence of the FBI Moffa, along with Peter Strzok, was a leader of the FBI's investigative team in both the counterintelligence investigation of the Trump campaign as well as the Mid-Year Exam investigation of Hillary Clinton. Moffa and Strzok oversaw the core investigative team run by Rick Mains. Assisting Moffa and Strzok was Sally Moyer, a counterintelligence lawyer Moffa, who was a career intelligence analyst and not an FBI agent, reported to Bill Priestap, the FBl's head of counterintelligence. National Committee servers after the FBl agent alleged hacking incident. Gaeta ran the FBl's Eurasian organized Lobban and Sir Richard Dearlove have Priestap was responsible for both the counterintelligence investigation of the Trump campaign as well as the Mid-Year Exam investigation of Hillary Clinton, which he inherited when he became head of the FBl's counterintelligence division in January 2016. Both Peter Strzok and Jonathan Moffa reported directly to Priestap, although Strzok would often circumvent Priestap and meet directly with McCabe. Priestap has acknowledged it was mostly Strzok and Moffa who were "driving the train." known each other for years and have been affiliated in the private sector post-retirement crime unit in New York. He has known Anderson was responsible for the legal oversight in both the counterintelligence investigation of the Trump campaign as well as the Mid-Year Exam investigation of Hillary Clinton. Anderson testified before Pientka was introduced to Bruce Ohr at telecommunications company Huawei, which has close ties to China's ruling Communist Party. a Nov.21, 2016, meeting that included Peter Strzok and Lisa Page, when he was assigned as Ohr's FBI handler. Pientka recorded information Ohr provided from Christopher Steele in F302 forms. Pientka then passed the information to Strzok. Pientka was also present with Strzok during the Jan. 24, 2017, interview of then-national security adviser Lt. Gen. Michael Flynn. Christopher Steele since at least 2010, and at some point served as Steele's FBI handler. Gaeta was sent to London to meet with Steele and obtain the first parts of the dossier. His trip was approved by Victoria Nuland at the State Department. Gaeta may have given a copy of the dossier to Nuland before anyone else. He met with Steele several times, including once in September 2016. FUSION GPS is an opposition research firm that was hired by the Clinton campaign and the a House committee that she signed off on the Carter Page FISA warrant application without having read it. She appears to have been involved in every aspect of both investigations. FUSIONGPS Democratic National Committee. MEMBERS of the Trump campaign were approached by individuals with close ties to U.S. and UK intelligence agencies. SPY TRAPS OF la r ARIMEN JOSEPH MIFSUD Professor at the London Academy of Diplomacy STEFAN HALPER DOJ The Department of Justice, which was aware of the actions by the FBI, assisted in obtaining a FISA warrant to spy on Carter Page and has prevented the declassification of information related to Spygate. Former deputy assistant secretary of state for politico-military affairs; adviser to Hakluyt DOM NELLIE OHR Wife of Associate Deputy Attorney General Bruce Ohr GLENN SIMPSON MARY JACOBY PETER FRITSCH TITIA S Misfud, a London-based Maltese professor, introduced Trump volunteer campaign adviser George Papadopoulos to the Russian Wife of Glenn Simpson Co-founder of Fusion GPS Co-founder of Fusion GPS Halper was closely associated with former MI6 chief Sir Richard Dearlove. He also has close connections to Hakluyt through Jonathan Clarke, with whom he co-authored two books. Jacoby visited the White House the day after National Security Agency Director Mike Rogers shut down FBI/ Fritsch worked for 13 years at The Wall Street Journal, including as the Washington bureau's national security and foreign affairs editor. Fusion GPS was hired by the Clinton campaign and the Democratic National Committee-through law firm Perkins Coie-to produce the dossier on Trump. Fusion employed Christopher Steele, who wrote the dossier that then was Foreign& Commonwealth Office THE INVESTIGATORS Ohr was hired by Fusion GPS and investigated different Russian figures as well as members of the Trump campaign. After she left Fusion, she provided her husband, DOJ official Bruce Ohr, witha USB drive containing all her research. Bruce then passed ambassador in London as well as a woman he described as the niece of DOJ contractor access to the FISA Multiple investigations are ongoing, including that of special counsel Robert Mueller and those into FISA abuse and unauthorized leaks. Here are the officials in charge of those investigations: search system Halper is the "FBI source" identified by the House Intelligence Committee who contacted Carter Page and George Papadopoulos. A graduate assistant of Halper's invited Page toa July 11-12,2016, Cambridge symposium where Halper and Page met. Halper would stay in touch with Page over the next 14 months. Halper's contact with Page ended as the final FISA warrant on Page expired. Halper met with Papadopoulos on Sept. 13, 2016, and a senior Trump campaign official on Sept. 11, 2016 In early November 2016, Halper said he believed that electing Hillary Clinton would be best for U.S.-UK relations. UK FOREIGN OFFICE Russian President Vladimir Putin. He also told Papadopoulos that the Kremlin had "dirt" on Hillary Clinton. On Sept. 2, 2016, George Papadopoulos accepted a meeting with Stefan Halper, who appears to have approached Papadopoulos unbidden. Papadopoulos, who had no prior contact with Halper, met with him in London on Sept. 13, 2016. An unexpected meeting with the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office immediately followed. used by the FBI to obtain a FISA warrant o spy on Trump campaign adviser Carter Page. Fusion GPS also was hired by Russian Mifsud and Papadopoulos both worked at the London Centre of International Law Practice (LCILP) in early 2016. Mifsud reportedly joined LCILP in the fall of 2015, while Papadopoulos reportedly joined in February 2016 it on to the FBI. Ohr and her husband LORETTA LYNCH SALLY YATES Deputy attorney general, acting attorney general MARY MCCORD have known Glenn Simpson since at least 2010. Acting assistant attorney general Attorney general lawyer Natalia Veselnitskaya on the Prevezon case during the same period when Fusion GPS commissioned the WILLIAM BARR Attorney general She was an assistant professor of Russian history at Vassar College during the 1990s. Edward Baumgartner, who was hired by Fusion GPS to work with Christopher Steele and Russian lawyer Natalia Veselnitskaya, studied Russian studies at Vassar at this time. Lynch met with Bill Clinton on a tarmacin Phoenix, Arizona, in June 2016, just prior to the FBI exoneration of Hillary Clinton. Text messages sent by Peter Strzok suggest that Lynch was aware James Comey would not recommend criminal charges in the Clinton investigation prior to her announcement that she would accept whatever recommendation the FBI made. McCord was the acting head of the DOJ's National Security Division (replacing John Carlin) before announcing her resignation on April 17, 2017. McCord accompanied Sally Yates to meet with White House Yates signed off on the original FISA application and the first renewal of the Carter Page FISA warrant. She also led efforts, alongside Mary McCord, to oust Gen. Michael Flynn from his Barr was confirmed by the Senate in February 2019. He was preceded by acting AG Matthew Steele dossier. THOMAS CATAN Partner at Fusion GPS NEIL KING Co-founder Glenn Simpson has known Bruce and Nellie Ohr since at least 2010. has known Christopher Steele Misfud has ties to Western Works for Fusion GPS Whitaker and AG Jeff Sessions. intelligence and has been pictured with Claire Smith and Boris Johnson. Simpson since at least 2009. Catan worked at The Wall Street King is married to Shailagh Murray- former Assistant to Obama and Senior Advisor for Strategic Journal at the same time as ROD ROSENSTEIN position as national security adviser. In 2015, Yates denied access for derele the inspector general to information collected under Title II. Yates was the counsel Don McGahn regarding Gen. Michael Flynn. Simpson met with Ohr twice in 2016, including once before the election. He also gave Ohr a USB stick, which Ohr believed contained the dossier. Glenn Simpson. Deputy attorney general Communications. Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller as special counsel, shifting control of the Russia investigation from the FBI and McCabe to Mueller He is also in charge of FBI leak investigations. acting attorney general for the first 10 days of the Trump administration, before being fired on Jan. 30, 2017. ON JUNE 9, 2016, members of the Trump campaign met with Russian lawyer Natalia Veselnitskaya and others at Trump Tower. The meeting was accepted after publicist Rob Goldstone said his contacts could "provide the Trump campaign with some official documents and information that would incriminate Hillary [Clinton] and her dealings with Russia." Instead, the meeting turned out to be intended to lobby against the Magnitsky Act. ROBERT MUELLER Special counsel; former FBI director ORBIS Business Intelligence is a private intelligence company founded by former British intelligence agents Christopher Steele and Chris Burrows. Mueller leads the team that took over the FBI's investigation into Russia collusion. ORBIS BRUCE OHR Associate deputy attorney general GEORGE TOSCAS Deputy assistant attorney general at the DOJ National Security Division JOHN CARLIN Assistant attorney general, head of DOJ's National Security Division MICHAEL HOROWITZ Ohr acted as the unofficial liaison DOJ inspector general between Christopher Steele and the FBI after the agency had terminated its relationship with Steele. Ohr was assigned a handler, FBI agent Joe Pientka, who recorded the information Ohr provided from Steele in F302 forms. Pientka then passed the information to Peter Strzok. Ohr Toscas reported to John Carlin and supervised David Laufman. He served as a pivotal point of communication between the DOJ and the FBI, and particularly FBI Deputy Director Andrew McCabe. Lisa Page testified that Carlin and Andrew McCabe were in Horowitz has more than 450 employees and a $100 million annual budget. communication throughout both the Trump and Clinton investigations. Carlin supervised both David Laufman and George Toscas. Carlin abruptly announced his resignation on Sept. 27, 2016, the day after filing the government's proposed 2016 Section 702 certifications. The NATALIA VESELNITSKAYA Lawyer for Prevezon Holdings Ltd. JOHN HUBER US attorney assigned by Attorney General Jeff Sessions Veselnitskaya attended the June 2016 meeting at Trump Tower with Rinat Akhmetshin to argue against the Magnitsky Act. She hired Fusion GPS in 2013 through law firm BakerHostetler, which represented Prevezon. gave Pientka a USB stick contain ing Fusion GPS research created by his ARAS AGALAROV Huber, who has a team of senior federal prosecutors, is working with Michael Horowitz on several investigations, including into FISA abuse. Both men report directly to Sessions and Rod Rosenstein. ROB GOLDSTONE Russian oligarch CHRIS BURROWS EDWARD BAUMGARTNER CHRISTOPHER STEELE wife, Nellie Ohr. Ohr also gave Pientka a USB stick from Glenn Simpson- British publicist DOJ's documentation, which did not disclose known FISA abuses, was later criticized in a FISA court ruling as exhibiting an institutional "lack of candor." The court also emphasized that "this is a very serious Fourth Amendment issue." Agalarov is the father of Emin Agalarov. He previously worked with Donald Trump to bring the Miss Universe pageant to Russia. Co-founder of Orbis; former MI6 colleague of Christopher Steele Co-founder of Edward Austin Former MI6 officer; co-founder of Orbis Business Intelligence Goldstone arranged the meeting between Natalia Veselnitskaya and Donald Trump Jr. at Trump Tower. He is the publicist for Emin Agalarov. which Ohr believed to have contained the Steele dossier. Ohr told the FBI of Baumgartner contracted for Orbis and Hakluyt. He is fluent in Russian and was hired by Fusion GPS to work on the Prevezon case, as well as the Steele dossier. He attended Vassar DAVID LAUFMAN Steele was employed by Fusion GPS to produce the dossier that the FBI used to obtain a FISA warrant on Carter Page. During a July 2016 meeting in London, Steele gave his main FBI contact, Michael Gaeta, his first memos. Steele subsequently used meetings with DOJ official Bruce Ohr to pass on information to the FBI. These meetings took place both before and after he was fired by the FBI. Starting in 2014, he had provided the State Department with analys is on Ukraine and Russia. After leaving MI6 in 2009, Steele maintained contact with British intelligence, Sir Richard Dearlove, Sir Andrew Wood, and intelligence firm Hakluyt. Burrows and Steele became friends potential biases and conflicts relating to Steele and his wife. Ohr has known Steele since at least 2007. He and Head of DOJ National Security Division's Counterintelligence and Export Control Section while both worked at MI6. In 2009, both left MI6 and started private intelligence firm Orbis. his wife have known Simpson since at least 2010. College, majoring in Russian studies, during the same period when Nellie Ohr was an assistant professor of Russian history at the college. TRUMP TOWER MEETING Laufman played a leading role in the Clinton email server and Russian hacking investigations. He resigned on Feb. 7,2018. OF DEPARIMEN CSTATE APTOWE STATE OF AMERIC DOD The State Department spread the Steele dossier to the FBI and helped promote the collusion narrative, in part through leaks to the media. EMIN AGALAROV Russian pop star and businessman RINAT AKHMETSHIN PABLO MILLER Russian-born lobbyist; alleged facilitator of the 2016 Trump Tower meeting with Natalia Veselnitskaya TED NANTES Former MI6 agent Agalarov is the son of Aras Agalarov. He helped arrange the meeting between Donald Trump Jr. and Natalia Veselnitskaya. Miller has reportedly been a contractor for Orbis since 2009. He has known Christopher Steele since 1994. STATES TH Akhmetshin is married to Lyudmila Vereshchagina, a Ukrainian national with ties to Ukraine intelligence who has been living in the United States since 2008. Both Akhmetshin and Vereshchagina knew and communicated with Glenn Simpson, Mary Jacoby, and Alexandra Chalupa. JOHN KERRY Secretary of state VICTORIA NULAND Assistant secretary of state for European and Eurasian affairs JONATHAN WINER Former deputy assistant secretary of state for international law enforcement; former special envoy for Libya ELIZABETH DIBBLE Charg茅 d'affaires and former deputy chief of mission at the U.S. Embassy in London EVELYN FARKAS Deputy assistant secretary of defense for Russia, Ukraine, and Eurasia IRAKLY 'IKE' KAVELADZE Kerry received a copy of the Steele dossier from Victoria Nuland. Business associate of Aras Agalarov Nuland gave the green light for FBI agent Michael Gaeta's meeting with Christopher Steele in July 2016. She received a copy of Steele's dossier in July 2016. She may have seen the dossier before FBI leadership. She provided the dossier to the FBI and John Kerry. Nuland had known Steele since 2014 through Jonathan Winer. Farkas detailed in a March 2017 Dibble received information on Kaveladze attended the June 2016 Trump Tower meeting. interview on MSNBC's "Morning Joe" show how the Obama administration George Papadopoulos from Alexander Downer. Winer and Christopher Steele have been friends since 2009. Winer DONALD TRUMP JR. Eldest son of President Donald Trump gathered and disseminated intelligence on the Trump team. Farkas is now a nonresident senior fellow at the Atlantic Council. met with Steele in September 2016 in Washington Going into the June 2016 meeting at Trump Tower, Trump Jr. expected to receive political opposition research on the Clinton campaign, as promised by publicist Rob Goldstone, who had set up the meeting. Instead, to Trump Jr.'s surprise, the discussion focused on lobbying against the Magnitsky Act. ADAM WALDMAN OLEG DERIPASKA DANIEL JONES Head of advisory firm Penn Quarter Group; former intelligence staffer for Sen. Dianne Feinstein DAVID KRAMER Former deputy assistant secretary of state for Russia and Ukraine; associate of Sen. John McCain SIDNEY BLUMENTHAL discuss the Russian oligarch Lawyer,lobbyist Senior adviser to the Clintons information contained in the dossier. Winer provided a summary of the Waldman's firm, the Endeavor Group, was hired by Russian oligarch Oleg Deripaska in May 2009. He would remain in Deripaska has long-standing Blumenthal received the dossier for Victoria Nuland. second uncorroborated dossier, produced by Cody Shearer. He passed a copy on to Jonathan Winer at the State Department. ties to Russia's Vladimir Putin. Paul Manafort, Christopher Steele, and Adam Waldman have lobbied on his behalf. In Winer, in turn, provided Steele with a copy of the second dossier containing uncorroborated information, given to him by Sidney Blumenthal. Steele then went on to pass the information to the FBI Jones's Penn Quarter Kramer is an affiliated senior received $50 million in funding from 7 to 10 wealthy donors, most located in New York and California. Deripaska's employ until April 2018, when he terminated the working relationship following renewed sanctions on Deripaska. In 2012, Waldman hired Christopher Steele's firm, Orbis Business Intelligence, on Deripaska's behalf. Waldman also represented Steele and WikiLeaks founder Julian fellow at the McCain Institute. At the direction of Sen. John ANATOLI SAMOCHORNOV 2006, Bruce Ohr was involved revoking Deripaska's U.S. visa. In 2009, Andrew McCabe recruited his help for an FBI case. In 2014, Ohr and Steele discussed recruiting Translator McCain, Kramer flew to London n November 2016 to meet with Samochornov was a translator present at the June 2016 Trump Tower meeting. Penn Quarter hired Steele Christopher Steele. Kramer was later provided a copy of the dossier by Glenn Simpson in the United States. Kramer gave the and Fusion GPS after the election to continue opposition research on President Donald Trump. The group has been linked to lobbyist Adam Waldman for Russian Deripaska, who was offering Sen. Mark Warner access to him as an FBI source. He had business ties to Manafort, who owed him millions. CODY SHEARER Author of second dossier; formerjournalist; longtime friend of the Clintons dossier to McCain and advised CONGRESS Certain members of Congress helped facilitate the spread of the Steele dossier and selectively leaked information to the media. him to share it with the FBI Assange. The United States imposed sanctions on him in 2018. and the CIA. He also provided the dossier to Buzzfeed News, which later published the document. He may have also distributed a Dec. 13 memo. arch Oleg DRA THE SWAN Shearer compiled an uncorrob- orated "shadow" dossier. Christopher Steele. SURVEILLANCE Members of the Trump campaign were targeted by the FBI, UK Intelligence, and possibly the CIA for the purposes of establishing a pattern of communication and/or ties with Russia The construction of the Russia-collusion narrative was intended to prevent Donald Trump from becoming president and, after he became president, to hinder his administration's effectiveness and MEDIA The media was instrumental in creating the Russia-collusion narrative through coordinated leaks from the Intelligence Community and various government agencies. NEWS DIANNE FEINSTEIN Ranking member of Senate Judiciary Committee; Democratic senator for California JOHN MCCAIN Republican senator for Arizona ADAM SCHIFF Ranking member of House Intelligence Committee; Democratic senator for California HARRY REID JAMES WOLFE Senate minority leader; Democratic senator for Nevada Director of security for the Senate Intelligence Committee THE CN possibly remove him from office. The FBl obtained a FISA warrant to spy on Carter Page and kept it active for a full year. McCain received a copy of the Steele dossier through his associate David Kramer. McCain admitted in a Jan. 11, 2017, statement that he had passed the dossier on to James Comey. NEW YORKER Reid, after being briefed by John Brennan, sent two letters to James Comey urging him to take action. Reid's office posted the letters publicly on his website, resulting in widespread media attention and the promotion of the Russia-collusion narrative. Feinstein leaked the transcript of the testimony Glenn Simpson gave to the Senate Judiciary Committee. She received a briefing from John Brennan in August/September 2016. Feinstein's senior intelligence staffer, Daniel Jones, left in 2016 to form Penn Quarter Group, which later hired Fusion GPS and Christopher Steele, following the election. Wolfe was the director of security for the Senate Select Committee on Schiff heavily promoted the Russia- collusion narrative. He has been accused of leaking to the media. Schiff wrote the House minority memo in response to the House memo abuses authored by House Intelligence to the as accused by the FBI of DAVID CORN Reporter with Mother Jones MICHAEL ISIKOFF Intelligence (SSCI) from May 1987 to December 2017. He was responsible for all classified information provided Reporter with Yahoo News CHARLOTTE CUTHBERTSON/THE EPOCH TIMES FISA Corn met with Christopher Steele in late October 2016 via Skype. He subsequently wrote an article-which referenced Alfa Bank-disclosing the existence of the dossier, along with Steele's relationship with the FBI. Corn communicated with top FBI lawyer James Baker prior to the election and provided him with additional parts of the dossier just before or after the election. Isikoff met with Christopher Steele in September 2016. He subsequently wrote an article that would be used in the application for the FISA warrant to spy on Carter Page. Isikoff also worked with DNC operative Alexandra Chalupa in the spring of 2016, leading him to write an article detailing Paul Manafort's business dealings with Russian oligarch Oleg Deripaska. The New Hork Times Committee Chairman Devin Nunes. Wolfe was engaging in ongoing, unauthorized contact with at least four reporters. He was sentenced to two months in prison for lying to the bureau. The Washington Post NEWS Y袗HOO! MotherJones BBC BuzzFeeD WHITE HOUSE Obama administration officialswere actively engaged in unmasking and intelligence gathering and dissemination. NEWS THE WHITE HOUSE PAUL MANAFORT Trump campaign chairman from May to August 2016 CARTER PAGE GEORGE PAPADOPOULOS Trump campaign foreign policy adviser Trump campaign foreign policy adviser The Guardian Newsweek The FBI used a meeting between Papadopoulos and Alexander Downer as the pretext for opening the FBl's July 31, 2016, counterintelligence investigation into alleged Trump- Russia collusion. Papadopoulos, a volunteer foreign policy adviser to the Trump campaign, appears to have been targeted through a series of highly coincidental meetings. Downer, Joset Stefan Halper, Charles Tawil, and officials from the UK's Foreign and Manafort, who has longstanding ties to Russian oligarch Oleg Deripaska, communicated during his time at the Trump campaign with Konstantin Kilimnik, his longti me employee in Kiev. In 2018, Manafort was convicted of a number of financial crimes. According to a federal judge, Manafort broke the terms of his plea deal with the special counsel, in part by lying about his interactions with Kilimnik. abc NEWS The FBI used Page to obtain a FISA spy warrant that was renewed three times and lasted until October 2017 Page was never charged by the FBI Page was approached by FBI informant Stefan Halper on July 11, 2016, at a Cambridge symposium. Halper would stay in contact with Page for 14 months, stopping contact exactly as the final FISA warrant on Page expired. BEN RHODES Deputy national security adviser for strategic communications SUSAN RICE SAMANTHA POWER DENIS MCDONOUGH SHAILAGH MURRAY McClatchy VANITY FAIR MSNBC National security adviser to President Barack Obama U.S. ambassador to the U.N. White House chief of s taff Senior adviser to President Barack Obama Power has been named as a person who made unmasking requests for hundreds of identities. She testified later that others used her name to Rhodes has been questioned by the House Intelligence Committee on his role in the unmasking of members of the Trump campaign during the 2016 election. Mcl chief of staff for Barack Obama's second term. He met with FBI agent Jonathan Moffa on Aug. 10, 2016. McDonough has also been referenced in texts sent by Peter Strzok. was the White House was referred by Rep. Devin Nunes to the House Judiciary and Oversight committees for questioning in an open setting. She is married to Neil King, who works at Fusion GPS. Using the practice of unmasking, Rice requested the identities of membersof the Trump campaign collected in raw intelligence reports on dozens of occasions. Rice was also present at a secret Jan. 5,2017,meeting at the Oval Office with Obama, James Comey, and Sally Yates, to discuss the dossier and efforts to prevent the incoming Trump administration from having access to certain Russia-related intelligence ifsud, It appears that Kilimnik facilitated communications between Manifort and Deripaska. Manafort had been under a Title I FISA warrant prior to Commonwealth Office all crossed make such requests. POLITICO SLATE paths with Papadopoulos. THUFFPOSTI joining the Trump campaign. Media reports suggest the FBI obtained a new FISA warrant on Manafort after he left the campaign. CE AGENCY ENTRAL USTICE DEFENSE UNITED #SpyGate

#SpyGate

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Destiny, Food, and Frozen: The Virgin Agricultralist THE CHAD PASTORALIST Teaches his superior technology and culture to Finno-Ugrics and Altaics out of genuine good will he has nothing to fear s the supreme cuckold - killed or enslaved by foreign invaders and his women taken for breeding Also gives away shitty frozen wastelands to said Finno-Ugrics and Altaics to give them a sense of accomplishment, while retaining the best lands for himself and his kin Warm eyes that are too friendly and welcoming Cold eyes that strike fear into swarthy manlets Ideal high calorie diet consisting purely of meat and dairy carries food around with him for protein boosts during battle Paternal line is extincted as a result, Matriarchal society, too weak and feminised to run society like a man Patriarchal society, is the maker of his own destiny the same can be said for most of his farming brethren Basically a baby in adult form, literally worships an "Earth Mother" Worships the Sky Father who brings him victory in battle Formed the ruling class of literally every ancient civilisation Poor posture from planting crops Pathetically small jaw caused by a grain-based diet Conquered peoples see him as a god due to his fair skin Weak body in general due to a poor and limited agricultural diet *MER! Kills or enslaves foreigners and takes their women for breeding Powerful, masculine jaw retained through a Dark skin darkened further by spending all day tending to the field Copies bronze metallugry from the farmers, but utilises it effectively by revolutionising military technology and meat-based diet Turned the entirety of the Caucasus Mountains into his personal cumdump Buried in a communal grave where he becomes indistinguishable from his compatriots probably isn't buried with any grave goods either Poorly made, drab clothing this is the extent of his personal belongings Strong body conditioned to the harsh nature of the steppe combat Paternal line is dominant over half of Eurasia and the First to develop Bronze, but decides to make foil instead of anything useful Unironically thinks that Pacifistic Proto-Communism is a good idea with hordes of marauding warlike steppe nomads sitting on the border New World, a sign of his virility and power Well crafted and unique clothing emphasises his status and individuality Buried in an individual grave with a burial mound and a wealth of grave goods he and his achievements will First to develop writing too, but no one remembers him for it be remembered forever Insists that True Gynocentrism has never been tried Understands the importance of hierarchy and private property rights Has his own horse and chariot for fast His greatest achievement is beating primitive hunter-gatherers Is tied to the land so can't leave his home travel and military domination village, not that he would get very far anyway since he doesn't own a horse His greatest achievement is spreading his culture, language and genes over most of Eurasia and his descendants will continue the Spending so much time around horses has caused him to develop a horsecock for himself process by spreading them to the New World Virgin agriculturalist vs Chad Pastoralist
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Bad, Bruh, and Click: PART 1 Comment too long. Click here to view the full text. > 51 replies and 5 images omitted. Click here to view. > UFOnymous 07/22/18 (Tue) 08:22:41 No.72065787 > >> 72065768 >my hardest choices , no choice really alien woman totally mocked me into a crying fetus > for only having a 2GB GeForce GTX 660 w/Core i3 3225 but she skypes me her true alien story. >her father was from Aldebaran 5. >her mom was a breeding vessel from Baltimore. >dad travels to earth in a scout vessel, aka the UFO arrive 1908, star drive malfunctions they eject the core, and it blows up radically bad > russian government said it was a meteor > flattened a forest and stuff UFO now damaged, cannot travel warp-drive back home >other damage to trans-radio, and some crew cryo bunks. > so the grey aliens also cannot quickly radio home, either. > and the unlucky scenario turns out > so its an alien sausage party here on eurasia. > they find out quickly how much it sucks here on old earth. > they travel place to place, random cow mutilations, random kidnappings. > each decade they move somewhere else. > they send powerful radio blasts home, but that takes forever to arrive > like 65 light years, bruh. > they've lived in Russia, Peru, Bermuda, Scotland, and other backwoods regions. > thank the Maker that their cloaking device still works. >The UFO captain runs the show, but the crisis splits crew in half. >one side is like "conservative", they want to wait on rescue from home. > they don't want to piss off earthers, either. Since they are outnumbered. > grey alien woman is breathing heavy as she tells me all this - >other side is like "radical" they want to try experiments: > 1. fix the warp-drive on this back-water red-neck, shi+-ho| e planet. > 2. find a way to breed with the locals, ending the sausage party. > 3. see if there's a way to telepathically signal back home. >Greys have minor telepathy & psionics, but can't effing reach 65 light years. > Captain and Conservatives tell Radicals to calm the fuck down. Their goofy shyte is why they have to move the UFO every ten years. > find a new parking space after they piss off and weird out the natives. > well the capper came in 1947, UFO was parked out in western USA. some of the Radicals were farting around trying to steal stuff. > they crash one of the shuttle pods, and pilot is captured by USAF {AREA-51. GIF} > This is the last straw, captain kicks all Radicals off the ship. > UFO packs up, moves to Suffolk, Virginia, buries itself in the sand there. > Now the names change on the 2 groups. all female crew are dead. > >Conservatives become "Rich Greys", they have the UFO, a few shuttles. they have food processors, 3D printers, computers, etc. starship bunks & equip. >Radicals now are the "Poor Greys". All they have is what they carried off the ship. They have predator suits (shifty camo), blasters, tricorders, not much else. > > > > The Poor Greys now have to live off the land. They take over farms and houses. > they mind control people, eat their cattle, empty their bank accounts. when the locals get wise, they move to the next county. > all the while, trying to do their 3 goals listed above, but they are broke-dick > You thought they were weird and desperate before. >- grey > {ROSWELL69.JPG woman's face changes color, I think she is blushing thru this part continued... True Story, Bruh.
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Animals, Extra, and For: In the mountains of Eurasia, pikas often share their burrows with finches and other small animals for extra warmth.

In the mountains of Eurasia, pikas often share their burrows with finches and other small animals for extra warmth.

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Ayy LMAO, Bad, and Bruh: PART 1 Comment too long. Click here to view the full text. > 51 replies and 5 images omitted. Click here to view. > UFOnymous 07/22/18 (Tue) 08:22:41 No. 72065787 > >> 72065768 no choice really my hardest choices > alien woman totally mocked me into a crying fetus > for only having a 2GB GeForce GTX 660 w/Core i3 3225 but she skypes me her true alien story. her father was from Aldebaran 5. >her mom was a breeding vessel from Baltimore. dad travels to earth in a scout vessel, aka the UFO. >arrive 1908, star drive malfunctions they eject the core, and it blows up radically bad > russian government said it was a meteor > flattened a forest and stuff > UFO now damaged, cannot travel warp-drive back home > other damage to trans-radio, and some crew cryo bunks. >so the grey aliens also cannot quickly radio home, either. > and the unlucky scenario turns out > so its an alien sausage party here on eurasia. > they find out quickly how much it sucks here on old earth > they travel place to place, random cow mutilations, random kidnappings. > each decade they move somewhere else. > they send powerful radio blasts home, but that takes forever to arrive. > like 65 light years, bruh. > they've lived in Russia, Peru, Bermuda, Scotland, and other backwoods regions. thank the Maker that their cloaking device still works. all female crew are dead. > The UFO captain runs the show, but the crisis splits crew in half. >one side is like conservative" they want to wait on rescue from home. > they don't want to piss off earthers, either. Since they are outnumbered. > grey alien woman is breathing heavy as she tells me all this > other side is like "radical" they want to try experiments: > 1. fix the rp-drive on this back-water red-neck, shi+-hole planet. > 2. find a way to breed with the locals, ending the sausage party > 3. see if there's a way to telepathically signal back home. >Greys have minor telepathy & psionics, but can't effing reach 65 light years. > Captain and Conservatives tell Radicals to calm the fuck down. Their goofy shyte is why they have to move the UFO every ten years > find a new parking space after they piss off and weird out the natives. > well the capper came in 1947, UFO was parked out in western USA >some of the Radicals were farting around trying to steal stuff. they crash one of the shuttle pods, and pilot is captured by USAF > {AREA-51.GIF) >This is the last straw, captain kicks all Radicals off the ship. > UFO packs up, moves to Suffolk, Virginia, buries itself in the sand there. > Now the names change on the 2 groups. > - >Conservatives become "Rich Greys", they have the UFO, a few shuttles. they have food processors, 3D printers, computers, etc. starship bunks & equip Radicals now are the "Poor Greys". All they have is what they carried off the ship. They have predator suits (shifty camo), blasters, tricorders, not much else. > > > The Poor Greys now have to live off the land. They take over farms and houses. > they mind control people, eat their cattle, empty their bank accounts. when the locals get wise, they move to the next county. > all the while, trying to do their 3 goals listed above, but they are broke-dick. > You thought they were weird and desperate before. > - woman's face changes color, I think she is blushing thru this part grey > {ROSWELL69.JPG > continued. . > True Story, Bruh (Part 1)
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America, Energy, and Fall: GRAVEL TRAIL OF ANOK ANOKA ONSERVATION ISTRICT INVASIVE SPECIES REMOVAL/ ANOKA NATURE PRESERVE WHY CONTROL INVASIVE SPECIES? Invasive species out compete native plants for nutrients, light and moisture. Common and glossy buckthorn are native to Eurasia and were introduced to North America as ornamental plants. They lack natural controls like insects and disease that would slow thelrgrowth and their seeds are viable forimany years This. combined with their ability to leaf out early in the spring and retain leaves late in the fall,,enables common and glossy buckthom toldisplace nativefrees, shrubs and wildflowers.As a result, buckthorn formis dense stands that degrade wildlife habitat Additionally, buckthorn contains a natural laxetive, leaving.wildlife that readily consume it dehydrated and malnourished BUCKTHORN TREATMENT BUCKTHORN IDENTIFICATION The Anoka Conservation District began treating invasive species (primarily common buckthorn) at the Anoka Nature Preserve in 2012, Herbicide was applied to target species throughout 148 acres Sprayed plants were removed and burned for energy. A prescribed burn was conducted over 66 acres to kill buckthorn seeds and small plants in COMMON BUCKTHORN (Rhamnus cathartica) Found in upland environments Leaves pointed at the tip, toothed, prominent veins Berry-like fruits ripen from green to dark purple Bark with light raised spots, inner bark is orange Twigs often have thorns at their tips 2014. Follow up treatment continues. In time, desirable native plants will fill in open areas. GLOSSY BUCKTHORN (Frangula alnus) Found in wetland environments The majority of funding was provided from the Outdoor Heritage Fund of the Clean Water, Land and Legacy Amendment, and the Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund. . Leaves are oval, glossy, toothless edges Berry-like fruits ripen from green to red to dark purple Bark with light raised spots Twigs do not have thorns CLIAN WATER IAND & ANOKA ENVIRONMENT REAL CLASSIC TRUST FUND Does this count?

Does this count?

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