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Apparently, Family, and Head: wwwoslightlywarped.com sixpenceee: The Witch of Joshua Ward House This Georgian and Federal style building was constructed by Joshua Ward, a wealthy merchant sea captain, in the late 1780s on the remaining foundations of former sheriff George Corwin’s house on Washington Street in Salem, Massachusetts. Corwin was a bloody figure whose zeal added to the unfortunate events surrounding Salem in the late 1600s. Nicknamed ‘The Strangler’ after his preferred torture (which included tying his prone victims’ necks to their ankles until the blood ran from their noses), he is said to have been responsible for many of the ‘witches’’ deaths, including that of Giles Corey who was crushed to death by placing heavy stones on his chest in order to extract a confession. Legend states that just before he died, Corey cursed the sheriff and all sheriffs that follow in his wake, for Corwin’s despicable acts. It should be noted here that every sheriff since Corey uttered his curse died while in office or had been “forced out of his post as the result of a heart or blood ailment.” Corwin himself died of a heart attack in 1696, only about four years after the end of the trials.  By the time of his death, Corwin was so despised that his family had to bury him in the cellar of their house to avoid desecration of the corpse by the public. In the early 1980s Carlson Realty bought the House with the intention of turning it into their headquarters. After moving in, a realtor by the name of Dale Lewinski began the task of taking photographs of the staff members to add to a welcome display.  Lewinski used a Polaroid camera to snap the head-and-shoulders, passport-style pictures. It was the photograph of a colleague by the name of Lorraine St. Peter that caused a stir. The Polaroid was developed and, instead of showing St. Peter, it appeared to depict a frightening image: a strange, black-haired, feminine figure. St. Peter was nowhere to be seen on the snap. The photograph has, apparently, not been cropped at all. St. Peter has been entirely replaced by the apparition. 

sixpenceee: The Witch of Joshua Ward House This Georgian and Federal style building was constructed by Joshua Ward, a wealthy merchant sea ...

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Billboard, Fake, and Head: DELETE ALL YOUR SOCIAL MEDIA ACCOUNTS WARNS THE FOUNDING FATHER OF VIRTUAL REALITY imgflip.com In a new explosive interview, Silicon Valley tech pioneer and creator of the virtual reality 'avatar' Jaron Lanier tells people to delete your social media accounts due to the strong correlation between persistent social media usage and a dramatic societal rise in depression, anger, and anxiety that he says is the result of internet-induced modified forms of behavior. The warning comes in the wake of his new book which details how the creators of social media and the early engineers behind the internet "foolishly laid the foundations for global monopolies." Jaron Lanier is best known as a founding father of the field of virtual reality and throughout his polymath career has written extensively on human-computer interaction, including most recently in his book Ten Arguments for Deleting Your Social Media Accounts Right Now. Lanier explained in a recent UK Channel 4 interview: When you watch the television the television isn't watching you. When you see the billboard the billboard isn't seeing you... When you use these new designs — social media, search, YouTube — when you see these things, you're being observed constantly and algorithms are taking that information and changing what you see next. According to Lanier's bio, he coined the term 'Virtual Reality' (VR) and in the early 1980s founded VPL Research, the first company to sell VR products. In the late 1980s he led the team that developed the first implementations of multi-person virtual worlds using head mounted displays, as well as the first "avatars," and developed the first widely used software platform architecture for immersive virtual reality applications. As he defiantly asserts on his personal website, Lanier himself has "no social media accounts at all and all purported ones are fake." He's elsewhere said that most internet and social media pioneers in Silicon Valley "have regrets right now" after perfecting what is essentially mass human behavioral engineering and that that internet addiction is not only ruining people's lives but the political process as well. This is what I could call almost a stealthy addiction. It's a statistical addiction.

In a new explosive interview, Silicon Valley tech pioneer and creator of the virtual reality 'avatar' Jaron Lanier tells people to delete yo...

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Bad, Kelis, and Life: it, helping her disovery lay a foundation for his fledgling career The respected and in- demand artst discovered Carter singing for money on the streets of Ne York Citys Greenwich Village and signed him, then took him to the studio to work with producers Timbaland, Nokio, Bink Dog, the Flavahood team, and Gerald issac. In the studio herself work ing on her own project, Missy plans an album release later this year...Back with their master- piece, female supergroup En Vogue has a new album, Masterpiece Theatre, a 13-song work which saw them joining forces once again with the producing duo, Denzil Foster and Thomas McElroy, who helped put them on the map. Still appreciated by fans for the sophistication and glamour they brought back to female R&8 groups, En Vogue is the quintessential girl group. one of the foundations upon which rhythm 'n blues was built. WHO'S NOT showing than whats been reflected by the sales of her second album, Fear Of Flying. Not that she doein't have fans, but her skills are lacking and need serious work..Out of the gate with a bang, newcomer Kelis attracted attention with her anthemic first single, but the rest of her albun, Kleidoscope, failed to measure up. Shes gt a nice marketable look and sound. however, so there's lots to salvage for the next time around..We'll make it short and sweet. What happened to Keisha, Kima, and Pam? Once the strongest group on the Bad Boy Entertainment's roster, these three ladies exuded, street atti tude mixed with smoldering urban sex appeal, Dust 'em off, and bring 'em on back, we say! MARY J. BLIGE DA BRAT 14 WORD UP! BYJAN PETERS WHO'S HOT rhaps more than any other female rapper, Lil Kim has come to define today's hip-hop generation brash, irreverent, outspoken, vulnerable, and real. Hot since Hard Core, L Kim has upped the ante on her populatity by making strategik career moves which have kept her in demand and in the publics eye through a succession of image-making makeovers and bicoastal appearances in person and on wax. Kim's cur rent album, The Notorious K,LM is the first flight of the Queen Bee without the Notorious 8.1.G, a reality which forced her to look within herself for direction. Kim's expansion into other media, film, print ads, and who knows what else is to corme, has brought her clos er to the kind of notoriety that she says she's after, How hot is Lil Kim? Ask your mom if she knows who Lil Kim is. Chances are she will. Lir Kim's friend Mary J. Blige is also another artist whos come into her own. With her most recent album, Mary, already certitied platinum, Mary has retained her superstar status building yeary on her every woman appeal. Currently expanding her horizons as an actress and a model spokesperson for MAC cosmetics Viva Glam lI lipsticks, along with her girl, Lil Kim, Mary's longevity and popularity seems assured...New on the xene, female emcee Rah Digga classifies herself as a "serious" rapper. Not that she cant get all dolied up, but she doesn't want what's on the surface to interfere with the substance underneath. Nevertheless, with the releave of her debut album, Dirty Harriet, Rah Digga immediately established a fan base composed of all kinds of rap fans. Why? Because shes got skilk. A rapper who believes in earning her accolades, Rah Digga s the kind of everyday female to whom fans can relate. If anything, it's her dream that one day female rappers can be taken seriously without relying on the externals to help get them over. Fans cer- tainly have responded to her approach...Fashioned in the same outspoken mold as Lil Kim, Eve came onto the scene and immediately regis tered as a real-life, around-the-way sista whose rap skills secured for her a place in the hip-hop hierarchy. Touring with labelmates from the Ruff Ryders crew, Eve never fails to amaze fans who get impressed with her street cool, flavorful flow, For her, the heat stays on and on...Branded as a hip hop tomboy, Da Brat made her appearance as a rough neck femme whose image lately softened under hot lights for sexy shots as a calen dar queen. for women whe indulge the feminine and masculine sides of their gender, Da Brat was a long awaited role model whose duality they appreci- ated in addition to her rhyme skills. Currently rolling strong from the success of her third album Unrestricted, Da Brat has the distinction of being the first solo female rapper to go platinum. Since then, shes built on her fan base and remained in the spotlight while others faded away...Even when Missy Elliott inot on the charts, better believe she's always got something going on. In this case, it's the debut album release from Torrey Carter, the first male artist from Missy's label imprint, Gold Mine Records. Missy does a turn on ERNEST PANCCIOU MYA LIL'KIM EN VOGUE EYE WORD UP! 13
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Bailey Jay, Click, and Tumblr: Pre-Roman Peoples and Languages of lberia An ethnological map of the Iberian Peninsule after the 2nd Punic War (с. 200 b.c.е.). A geographical palimpsest, including Roman urban foundations and resettlements until c. 25 bce. Ethnic/Political identities in Graeco-Roman and Indigenous sources Larger or more generic POPULUS ASTURES Smaller or local GENS or CVITAS BRACARI OPPIOUM or POLIS Latedpe-Roman ame ANTABRI Newroman mame of older place Pre-Roman towns, indigenous and colonial, that minted coins until 45 b.c.e Language used in mint: BERONES RETANI Emporion Greek RP NDONES e Easterm Iberian Southern Iberiae ● Tanessan VACCAE LA CESSETANI Latin land er Other relevant oppida Linguistic groups Turdetanian area Tartessian (residual) CALVR TAPORI BALEARES Aquitanian (Prolo-Basque) EDETAN TA Major linguistic associations Main colonial foundings O Ebusos CELTICI OGreek TURDU ORETANI Akra Leuke Zone of maritime and commercial hegemony of Gadir Carthaginians (237 to 206 b.c.e.) Carthsgo Nova Colonization area +Military domain Gadir Geopolitical influence Circle of the Straight OL Fraga da Campo Arqueobglco de Tavira, Portugal Roman military occupation questions may be 194 b.ce. 156 b.c.e Roman provincies (after 7 b.c.e.) LMAURI Rusaddir GAETAE Names USITANIA,BETICA TARRACONENSIS BANIURAEMAURUS Limits <p><a href="http://land-of-maps.tumblr.com/post/148928451480/pre-roman-peoples-and-languages-of-iberia-3307-x" class="tumblr_blog">land-of-maps</a>:</p> <blockquote><p>Pre-Roman Peoples and Languages of Iberia [3307 x 2339]<br/><a href="http://landofmaps.com/">CLICK HERE FOR MORE MAPS!</a></p></blockquote>

land-of-maps: Pre-Roman Peoples and Languages of Iberia [3307 x 2339]CLICK HERE FOR MORE MAPS!

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Bailey Jay, Click, and Tumblr: Pre-Roman Peoples and Languages of lberia An ethnological map of the Iberian Peninsule after the 2nd Punic War (с. 200 b.c.е.). A geographical palimpsest, including Roman urban foundations and resettlements until c. 25 bce. Ethnic/Political identities in Graeco-Roman and Indigenous sources Larger or more generic POPULUS ASTURES Smaller or local GENS or CVITAS BRACARI OPPIOUM or POLIS Latedpe-Roman ame ANTABRI Newroman mame of older place Pre-Roman towns, indigenous and colonial, that minted coins until 45 b.c.e Language used in mint: BERONES RETANI Emporion Greek RP NDONES e Easterm Iberian Southern Iberiae ● Tanessan VACCAE LA CESSETANI Latin land er Other relevant oppida Linguistic groups Turdetanian area Tartessian (residual) CALVR TAPORI BALEARES Aquitanian (Prolo-Basque) EDETAN TA Major linguistic associations Main colonial foundings O Ebusos CELTICI OGreek TURDU ORETANI Akra Leuke Zone of maritime and commercial hegemony of Gadir Carthaginians (237 to 206 b.c.e.) Carthsgo Nova Colonization area +Military domain Gadir Geopolitical influence Circle of the Straight OL Fraga da Campo Arqueobglco de Tavira, Portugal Roman military occupation questions may be 194 b.ce. 156 b.c.e Roman provincies (after 7 b.c.e.) LMAURI Rusaddir GAETAE Names USITANIA,BETICA TARRACONENSIS BANIURAEMAURUS Limits <p><a href="http://land-of-maps.tumblr.com/post/148928451480/pre-roman-peoples-and-languages-of-iberia-3307-x" class="tumblr_blog">land-of-maps</a>:</p> <blockquote><p>Pre-Roman Peoples and Languages of Iberia [3307 x 2339]<br/><a href="http://landofmaps.com/">CLICK HERE FOR MORE MAPS!</a></p></blockquote>

land-of-maps: Pre-Roman Peoples and Languages of Iberia [3307 x 2339]CLICK HERE FOR MORE MAPS!

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Books, Church, and Doctor: In ancient Egypt, any books found in ships coming into port, would be brought immediately to the library of Alexandria and be copied. The original would be kept in the library and the copy given back to the owner. Ultrafacts.tumblr.com <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p> </blockquote> <p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p> </blockquote> <p>but why</p> </blockquote> <p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p> </blockquote> <p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p> </blockquote> <p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p> </blockquote> <p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p> </blockquote> <p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p> <p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p> <p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p> <p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p> <p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p> <p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p> </blockquote> <p>FYI.</p>

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Books, Church, and Doctor: In ancient Egypt, any books found in ships coming into port, would be brought immediately to the library of Alexandria and be copied. The original would be kept in the library and the copy given back to the owner. Ultrafacts.tumblr.com <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p> </blockquote> <p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p> </blockquote> <p>but why</p> </blockquote> <p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p> </blockquote> <p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p> </blockquote> <p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p> </blockquote> <p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p> </blockquote> <p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p> <p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p> <p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p> <p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p> <p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p> <p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p> </blockquote> <p>#getrekt</p>

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Alive, Ash, and Bad: Name the proper method of murdering children, according to the bible. FAMILY STONE THEM TO DEATH Deuteronomy 21:21 DROWN THEM Matthew 18:6 21 | FATHERS SHOULD EAT SONS 8 Ezekiel 5:10 POISON THEM Deuteronomy 32:24 DASH THEM AGAINST STONES KILL THEM WITH DEATH Revelations 2:23 11 Psalms 137:9 SET FIRE TO THEM 10 STARVE THEM TO DEATH Lev 10:3 Lamentations 4:4 <p><a href="http://marumina.tumblr.com/post/101601096550/this-is-intended-to-be-a-sort-of-gotcha-but" class="tumblr_blog">marumina</a>:</p> <blockquote><p>This is intended to be a sort of “gotcha,” but what this really is is gross misinterpretation.</p> <p>Let’s take what each of these verses actually say, shall we?  Then we will look at what they actually mean.</p> <p>Deuteronomy 21:21 as a verse itself can only be understood in the context of the other verses in the passage, so I will provide them here.</p> <p>Deuteronomy 21:18 - If someone has a stubborn and rebellious son who does not obey his father and mother and will not listen to them when they discipline him,</p> <p>21:19 - his father and mother shall take hold of him and bring him to the elders at the gate of his town.</p> <p>21:20 - They shall say to the elders, “This son of ours is stubborn and rebellious. He will not obey us. He is a glutton and a drunkard.”</p> <p>21:21 - Then all the men of his town are to stone him to death. You must purge the evil from among you. All Israel will hear of it and be afraid.</p> <p>A drunkard?  Now how many little kids do you know are guzzling alcohol?  Certainly not in that culture and time, at least.  So already we can get the sense that they’re most likely referring to adult children.  When we think of children in Western culture, we always assume young children, but technically, even if you’re 30 years old, you’re still your mother and father’s child, even though you are not <em>a</em> child in the eyes of the society in which you were raised.  But family ties were extremely significant to the Jewish people in the era of the Old Testament, specifically ties between parents and their progeny.</p> <p>It’s also important to note that the punishments for sin in the Old Testament were exclusive to the Jews in that time period.  It was a temporary theocracy system, and later, in the Book of Hebrews, Jesus tells His Jewish followers that they cannot follow Him and also make sacrifices and judgments according to Moses’ Law.  Jesus fulfilled the Law when He died on the cross.  That’s not to say that now we cannot send people to jail for murdering someone - simply that we are not bound by Moses’ Law.  The moral laws, such as loving your neighbor, not stealing, not lying, not being jealous of others, are timeless, but the actual legal/justice system in Moses’ Law was temporary.</p> <p>Matthew 18:6 - “If anyone causes one of these little ones—those who believe in me—to stumble, it would be better for them to have a large millstone hung around their neck and to be drowned in the depths of the sea.”</p> <p>Children in this case are referred to as Jesus’ followers in the context of this passage.  Jesus is using the example of children as a metaphor.  But even so, it doesn’t say that the <em>children</em> are the ones to get drowned - it’s those who influence them to do bad things.  And notice how he doesn’t say “you must drown them,” - he is saying that it would be <em>better</em> for them to drown than to cause one of God’s children to do bad things, like hatred against your fellow man, etc. etc.  Which implies that the spiritual consequences will be grave, since there are no earthly consequences for influencing a Christian to do bad.  So this passage doesn’t even <em>imply</em> punishing children at all, unless you’re going to do some huge nonsense mental acrobatics.</p> <p>Revelations 2:23 - I will strike her children dead. Then all the churches will know that I am he who searches hearts and minds, and I will repay each of you according to your deeds.</p> <p>This is Jesus speaking exclusively about Jezebel’s children, if you read the previous verses.  Jezebel’s children were already adults before Jesus made this statement, in fact two of her sons had succeeded their father’s throne (one after the other, since the first son died), so they are completely responsible for their own deeds, good or bad.  Jezebel was a queen of Israel who called herself a prophet, but she did many evil, selfish things, trying to justify herself by saying she was doing right by God.  She believed a king had absolute power and could do whatever he wished because his word was law, even if he did bad.  She murdered several prophets (1 Kings 18:4) in an attempt to convert the Israelites to polytheism.  She also had a man stoned to death because he refused to sell his vineyard to her husband, the king (1 Kings 21:1-14).  So she wasn’t exactly the best person.</p> <p>Leviticus 10:3 - Moses then said to Aaron, “This is what the L<span class="yhwh">ORD</span> spoke of when he said: “ ‘Among those who approach me I will be proved holy; in the sight of all the people I will be honored.’ ” Aaron remained silent.</p> <p>I assume there was a mistake here, because this verse doesn’t refer to burning children whatsoever!  But if you read the previous verses, you find that who actually died were two of the sons of Aaron, the head priest.  They themselves were priests, and to be a priest at that time, you had to be around 30 years old.  So, again, old enough to be made accountable for your actions.</p> <p>Ezekiel 5:10 - Therefore in your midst parents will eat their children, and children will eat their parents. I will inflict punishment on you and will scatter all your survivors to the winds.</p> <p>This is specifically a prophesy given the context of the passage, not a moral command.</p> <p>Ezekiel 5:5-10 - “This is what the Sovereign L<span class="yhwh">ORD</span> says: This is Jerusalem, which I have set in the center of the nations, with countries all around her.</p> <p>&ldquo;Yet in her wickedness she has rebelled against my laws and decrees more than the nations and countries around her. She has rejected my laws and has not followed my decrees.</p> <p>“Therefore this is what the Sovereign L<span class="yhwh" id="yui-gen111">ORD</span> says: You have been more unruly than the nations around you and have not followed my decrees or kept my laws. You have not even conformed to the standards of the nations around you.</p> <p>&quot;Because of all your detestable idols, I will do to you what I have never done before and will never do again.</p> <p>Therefore in your midst parents will eat their children, and children will eat their parents. I will inflict punishment on you and will scatter all your survivors to the winds.”</p> <p>It is clearly a prophesy of what the people of Israel would do when they turned their backs against God, which eventually happened in 2 Kings.  It is not a condoning of cannibalism, because the Bible repeatedly declares murder as an atrocious sin.<span>  Right after the declaration of prophesy, God states that Israel would be punished for doing such things.<br/></span></p> <p><span>Deuteronomy 32:24 - “</span>I will send wasting famine against them, consuming pestilence and deadly plague; I will send against them the fangs of wild beasts, the venom of vipers that glide in the dust.”</p> <p>This entire chapter (Deuteronomy 32) is dedicated to what would happen to Israel if they started doing evil things and turning their backs on God.  “Sons and daughters” tie in with the idea that when you are a follower of God, you are God’s son or daughter.  Just like when you’re 40, and your parents are still alive, you’re still their son or daughter.</p> <p>Psalms 137:9</p> <p>&quot;Happy is the one who seizes your infants and dashes them against the rocks.&rdquo;</p> <p>Hmm!  Now this seems more direct, right?  Except it’s not.  This is from a short chapter of Psalms, so I’ll provide the other verses.</p> <p>Psalms 137:1-9</p> <p>&ldquo;By the rivers of Babylon we sat and wept when we remembered Zion.</p> <p>There on the poplars we hung our harps,</p> <p>for there our captors asked us for songs, our tormentors demanded songs of joy; they said, “Sing us one of the songs of Zion!”</p> <p>How can we sing the songs of the L<span class="yhwh">ORD</span> while in a foreign land?</p> <p>If I forget you, Jerusalem, may my right hand forget its skill.</p> <p>May my tongue cling to the roof of my mouth if I do not remember you, if I do not consider Jerusalem my highest joy.</p> <p>Remember, L<span class="yhwh" id="yui-gen62">ORD</span>, what the Edomites did on the day Jerusalem fell. “Tear it down,” they cried, “tear it down to its foundations!”</p> <p>Daughter Babylon, doomed to destruction, happy is the one who repays you according to what you have done to us.</p> <p>Happy is the one who seizes your infants and dashes them against the rocks.”</p> <p>Since the writer of this Psalm (and the Psalms in general) is widely agreed to have been King David, taken into context with the entire chapter, Psalms 137:9 seems to be one part of David’s lamenting of his loss of Jerusalem.  It’s important to note that the Bible is not entirely made up of moral doctrines - it also tells a story, and gets into the hearts and minds of many different people.</p> <p>Anyone reading line 9, after having read the previous lines and indeed, most of the Psalms, would see that this line is just a ruler regretting the loss of his kingdom.</p> <p>Lamentations 4:4 - Because of thirst the infant’s tongue sticks to the roof of its mouth; the children beg for bread, but no one gives it to them.</p> <p>Now, if you read the rest of the chapter, you will see that this too is a lamentation (hence the title, haha!).  This is not a moral command - this is an account of how the people of Israel are slacking in following up on God’s moral commands, and because of that, they are causing children to starve.  Read the first five verses together now:</p> <p>Lamentations 4:1-5</p> <p>&quot;How the gold has lost its luster, the fine gold become dull! The sacred gems are scattered at every street corner.</p> <p>&quot;How the precious children of Zion [Israel, essentially], once worth their weight in gold, are now considered as pots of clay, the work of a potter’s hands!</p> <p>&quot;Even jackals offer their breasts to nurse their young, but my people have become heartless like ostriches in the desert.</p> <p>&quot;Because of thirst the infant’s tongue sticks to the roof of its mouth; the children beg for bread, but no one gives it to them.</p> <p>&quot;Those who once ate delicacies are destitute in the streets. Those brought up in royal purple now lie on ash heaps.&rdquo;</p> <p>That line there - “but my people have become heartless like ostriches in the desert.”  It is because of Israel’s degradation and refusal to consistently follow the moral commands given to them by God, that eventually, this situation came about.  The reason children are being starved is because the Israelites are not feeding them - they’re slacking off, basically.  This line, too, is not a moral command, then - it is the author recording the suffering of Israel because they stopped following their moral code, given to them by God.</p> <p>Now overall, what do all my explanations show you?  It shows you that some people will do anything to claim my faith is evil, even going so far as to completely ignore context - the very basics of literary hermeneutics - and instead cherry-pick verses that at first glance seem problematic, but deeper reading proves quite the opposite.</p></blockquote>

marumina: This is intended to be a sort of “gotcha,” but what this really is is gross misinterpretation. Let’s take what each of these vers...

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