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I must pet him now and put more food in his bowl.: The Central Nervous Syst Chapter 12 eral ensatm and the teelng that yeur lungs will burst when hreath t long These riclude upset stomac rtes zs the HOME OSTATIC IMBALANCE 12.2 maton that Damage to the primary ual rtex oIgure 12 functional blindness Although unable to conser Still have certa the upp es By contrast, individuals with a damagei vis area can see, but they do not comprehendd w iduals u ith this damage may king at e Mi are curon However. ptenar balr of thhe c ch primary auditory association areas that we have considered so tfar (light ighr blue in Figure 12.7) have all been tightly tied to one ki primary motor or sensory cortex (dark red or dark blue). of the cortex, though, consists of complexly connected mi modal association areas (light violet in Figure 12.7) that rece inputs from multiple senses and send outputs to multiple areas In general, information flows as follows: modal Association Areas SVPvin of the teaporal lobe neKt 1o y excuing the hcaring recepiors of te 1o be trnsmitid to the primary Auditory Cor are interpreted as pitch, loudness, and location. posterior auditory association area then per- Nion of the sound stimulus, which we "hear am. music, thunder, and so on. Memories of e past appear to be stored here for reference. P we describe later, includes parts of the sensory receptors primary sensory cortex Imaging studies show that Sum) Cortex ex responsible for conscious awareness of esition of the head in space) is located in the Spacious. sensory association cortex cent pari of the insula and adjacent parietal cortex (see multimodal association cortex Cortex The primary olfactory (smell) cortex lies niform lobe which is dominated by the hooklike Multimodal association cortex allows us to give meaning to the information that we receive, store it in memory, tie it previous experience and knowledge, and decide what action to al aspect of the temporal lobe in a small region ure 12.7b). Afferent fibers from smell receptors in take, Those decisions are relayed to the premotor cortex, which r nasal cavity send impulses along the olfactory in turn communicates with the motor cortex. The multimodal association cortex seems to be where sensations, thoughts emotions become conscious. It is what makes us whn Suppose, for example, you drop a bottle of lab and it splashes on you. You see the crash, feel your skin burning, and S individual perceptions come t ciation areas. Along with are woven into a sea instructions abow premotor and you to thy are ultimately relayed to the olfactory cortices. The a cnscious awareness of different odors. cory cortexr is part of the primitive rhinencepha- efah-lon; "nose brain"), which includes all parts 2wasNts size, In humans, the face 么nicdps are the most sensitive body e the lanrest parts of the somatosen- um that receive olfactory signals-the orbitofron- s of the temporal lobes, and the protruding olfac- ncus, and associated regions located on or in the nd bulbs that extend to the nose. During the course s Concerned chiefly with emotions and memory. 7Association Cortex The somatosensory Carun cortexr lies pust posterior to the primary soma- s Conex and has many connections with it. The major Sirspon of this area is to integrate sensory inputs (temperature, rssure, and so ferth) relayeul to it V13 the primary somatosen- sery cortex to produce an understanding of an object being fele Lgure 128 nght). most of the "old" rhinencephalon has taken on part of the "newer" emotional brain, called the which we will consider later in this chapter. This y cerain odors can evoke strong emotions. The only bulbs and trcts (described in Chapter 13) 8 the human rhinencephalon still devoted to smell s deletal ts size, texture, and the relationnship of its parts. For example, when you reach into your pocket, your soma- fosensory association corter draws upon stored memories past sensory eperiences to perceive the objects you feel: coins or kevs. Someone with damage to this area could not re he body's. eudie body tegion paiai discrimination. o carter the hody is represented n sarording to the site of stimulus heausphere receives input from the left side all olfactory cortices. Cortex The gustatory (taste) co nvolved in perceiving taste s er sensory cortex devoted to a particu- that region's sensiivity (ihat is, ognize these abjects without looking at them. Visual Areas The primary visual (striate) cortex is, buried deep in the calearine sulcus in the medial aspect of th w deep to the temporal lohs the extreme posterior tip of the occipital lobe, but most of it GNIory Area The co I must pet him now and put more food in his bowl.

I must pet him now and put more food in his bowl.

Prevent yourself from becoming a VOMIT: Concerned About Your X-ray or MRI Findings? Prevent yourself from becoming a VOMIT (Victim Of Medical Imaging Technology) Medical imaging procedures such as x-rays, ultrasounds, CT Scans and MRIS can be very valuable for identifying serious medical conditions such as fractures, dislocations, spinal cord injuries, etc. However, once "serious" problems have been ruled out by a doctor, minor findings are of no value in helping to explain the far majority of aches and pains. In fact, not only are the majority of imaging results not helpful, studies support that they are even harmful from a psychological point of view. Especially when reports tell patients that they have arthritis, degenerative discs, disc bulges, tendon tears, etc. Everyday thousands of patients across Canada become a VOMIT (Victim Of Medical Imaging Technology). Those who become a VOMIT have been shown to have more doctor's visits, longer lasting pain, more disability, and a lower sense of well being.2 Here are a few important facts regarding medical imaging that you must be aware of to prevent yourself from becoming another VOMIT. Lumbar Spine Thoracic Spine Cervical Spine Studies have shown that lumbar disc MRI studies of healthy adults with no history of An MRI study of healthy adults and seniors found that 98% of all the men and women degeneration is present in 40% of individuals under the age of 30 and present in over 90% of those between the ages of upper or low back pain found that 47% had disc degeneration, 53% had disc bulges and 58% had disc tears in their thoracic spine. Amazingly 29% of with no neck pain had evidence of "degenerative changes" in their cervical discs." 50-55. these healthy adults had a disc bulge that was actually deforming and pressing on the spinal cord, yet they did not even know about it. Another study showed that amongst healthy young adults aged 20-22 years with no back pain, 48% had at least one degener- ated disc, and 25% had a bulging disc. A 10 year study compared the MRIS of healthy people to those with neck whiplash injuries. Immediately and 10 years later, both groups had similar MRIS with 3/4 having neck disc bulges. Translation: Do not panic if your x-ray or MRI shows "problems" with your discs; they are simply common and NORMAL findings. Leading physicians at the department of Neurosurgery at the University of California strongly recommend AGAINST the routine use of MRI for low back pain since they have found NO LINK between Translation: The far majority of all healthy adults get neck degeneration (arthritis) and disc bulges meaning they are a NORMAL aging process! Therefore neck arthritis or mild to moderate disc bulges SAMPLE Poster is available on www.aptei.com in March 2014 degenerative changes seen on x-rays or MRIS and low back pain. 10 cannot possibly be a reasonable explanation of your neck pain, or else 98% of people would have neck pain. Translation: Do not panic if your x-ray or MRI shows "problems" with your discs; they are simply NORMAL changes that happen from the age of 20 onwards. Shoulder MRI studies of adults who have no shoulder pain show that 20% have partial rotator Hip There is only a weak association between joint space cuff tears and 15% have full thickness tears. In addition, in those 60 and older with no shoulder pain or injury, 50% (half) of them had rotator cuff tears on their MRI that they did not even know about. narrowing seen on hip x-rays and actual symptoms." In fact, one study showed that 77% of healthy hockey players who had no pain, had hip and groin abnormalities on their MRIS.12 A study on professional baseball pitchers showed that 40% of them had either partial Translation: Do not panic if your hip x-ray or MRI shows cartilage tears or narrowing; it is NOT a sign of permanent pain or disability. or full thickness rotator cuff tears yet had no pain while playing and remained pain free 17 even 5 years after the study.' Knee Translation: Do not panic if your ultrasound and/or MRI shows a rotator cuff tear; it is NOT necessarily associated with shoulder pain! Studies have shown that when x-rayed, up to 85% of adults with no actual knee pain have x-rays that show knee arthritis. This means that there is little correlation between the degree of arthritis seen on x-ray, and actual pain." 13 In fact, one study showed that 48% of healthy professional basketball players had meniscal (cartilage) "damage" on their knee MRIS." Ankle Translation: Do not panic if your knee x-ray or MRI shows degeneration, arthritis or mild cartilage tears; it is NORMAL! Although there is an association with plantar fasciitis and heel spurs, it should also be known that 32% of people with 15 no foot or heel pain have a heel spur visible on x-ray." References: Kendrick D, at al The rale at radiography in primary care patienta with low back pain af at least i weeks deratioe arandomised (enblindedl ontraled trial. Health Technel Asscas, 2oargisola-6p LAah LM, al Efecta of dlagnostic information, per se, un parient oancomes in acute radiculepathy and low back pain. AINRAm ) Neuroradiol. 2ood Junuaai6segt-10s 1. Madic MT, et al Acuta low back pain and radinulepathy: MR imagina findinga and their prognoscic role and effect on outcoma. Radinlegy 2005 Novarlalisor-fos +Okuda E et al Disc deganaration of rvical spine an MRI im patienta with lumhar dic hermiation comparison study with anymptematic velunteera. Eu Spint ). sen Apranjaligis-gr Matsema M etal Prpective san-year follow stuty comparina patienta wich whiplaabassociated diserdera and asympamarie subjecis using magnetie reaenance imaging. Spine (Phila Pa sgre aora Aug 1ganlisla6B4 gn: 6. Mataumece M, et al Agolated changa of theracie and cervical intervertebral disca in anymptomatie subjecta, Spine (Phila Pa asrdl, anso Jun isasitalins-ta - Weod KB, at al Mametic renancs imaging of the thoracie spine. Evaluation of anymptomatic individuals. I Bene Joint Sers Am. 19p Novrinlad- A. Chung KM, a al Prevalanes and panerm of lumbar magmetie rsorance imaging dhanges in a population atudy of one thousand forty thres individuals. Spine IPhila Pa uprd, og Agr sanaiol:pe-ea. . Takutalo l, ee al Pievadence of degenerative imaging tindings in lumbar magnetie resonance imagins amens young adulta. Spine Phila Pa sgy6l, s0og Jul 1gnalutaped-. n. Chou D, etal Degenerative magntic resonance maging changes in patients with chramic low hack pain:a systemarie review. Spine Phila Pa 19761. aan Oct a贸lat Supplli5 Cha Mime Lin D, et al Validity and reapenaivencas of radiographic jaimt spaor width metrie meaanement in hip nstenarthritis: a systematic rieu. Ostenarthritis Cartilage. an Maynaistise-s a. Silvis ML, etal High prevalanue f selvie and hip magnetie resenance imagina findinga in aaymptomatic callegiate and professional hockey plavers. Am J Sperta Med. aun Aprolalnga. a. Bedson ), Creft PR. The disoordance berween dlinical and radiographic lnee ooteoarthricis: a systemaric search and summary of the litaracure. BMC Munculoskalet Disord. 1008 Sep 9ud 4 Kaplan LD, ai Magmetic resonance imaging of the knes in anymprematic profeesional haskachall players. Arthrescepy, 200g Mayyarishsr-fu s. Jahal KS, Milner SA. Plansarfascitia and the caleaneal apan: Fact fiction Fnoe Anide Sas soa Marakalae-e. 16. Sher 15, en al Abnurmal fndinss um magnetie maonana images of asympaomatie shaulders ) Bone Joine Surg Am 19pr lanrjaluo-4. 17. Connor PM, e al Magnetic resotance inaging of the arympromatie shoulder of ovehead athleran a syar follow up stuity. Am J Sporcs Med. 200j Se-Ooraristra Translation: One third of all people have a heel spur and have no pain. Published by: Advanced Physical Therapy Education Institute www.aptei.com info@aptei.com (905) 707-0819 Information courtesy of: Dr. Bahram Jam, PT 漏 2014 Prevent yourself from becoming a VOMIT

Prevent yourself from becoming a VOMIT