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Animals, Bad, and Bailey Jay: <p><a href="http://noelleian.tumblr.com/post/169002539157/calleo-bogleech-raw-fed-pets-faofox" class="tumblr_blog">noelleian</a>:</p> <blockquote><p><a href="http://calleo.tumblr.com/post/168968744159/bogleech-raw-fed-pets-faofox" class="tumblr_blog">calleo</a>:</p><blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://bogleech.tumblr.com/post/93450647663">bogleech</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://raw-fed-pets.tumblr.com/post/90406730386">raw-fed-pets</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://faofox.tumblr.com/post/90404102112">faofox</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://raw-fed-pets.tumblr.com/post/90389499204">raw-fed-pets</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p>All dogs share the same basic digestive system despite the range of physical variations (and attitudes) across different breeds. Every dog is designed to eat a raw animal-based diet, from the Chihuahua to the Great Dane. Breed-specific dog food brands are simply a marketing gimmick aimed at playing on the pet owner‚Äôs emotions, and their desire to feed their pet the best possible diet.</p> </blockquote> <p>I don‚Äôt think that dogs need an animal-based diet. If done right they can be vegan and not contribute to the murdering of innocent animals. We‚Äôve adapted and domesticated them enough to do so. They‚Äôve evolved to live without meat just like us.</p> </blockquote> <p>200% incorrect. Vegan diets are carbohydrate-based. Carbohydrates are inflammatory, feed cancer (glucose), contribute to periodontal disease (leading to systemic organ failure, eg heart), cause insulin spikes leading to a multitude of other issues in the long-term (thyroid, liver, diabetes, heart disease) and also cause pancreatic problems due to extreme stress on the pancreas (secreting heavy loads of carb enzymes over a long period of time). The low moisture content coupled with high <em>plant</em> protein may also cause renal failure in the long term. The preservatives used may also be linked to cancer (BHA, BHT etc), and these diets also skew the omega3/6 ratio, causing further inflammation (linked to cancer again). They cause urine alkalinity leading to urinary problems such as crystals, blockages and UTI‚Äôs.</p> <p>Brief into to dog anatomy/physiology:</p> <p>- Stomach PH: Their highly acidic stomach is designed for eliminating harmful bacteria and breaking down bone into a gel-like substance. Humans have a much more alkaline stomach acid which is why we would struggle to digest raw bone.</p> <p>-Digestive Enzymes: Higher level of proteases to break down animal protein. High bile load to help push through bacteria.</p> <p>-Dental Anatomy: Sharp pointed teeth designed for ripping and tearing flesh and bones.Dogs do not chew their food as we do, they are wired to swallow chunks quickly as a basic survival instinct.</p> <p>-Jaws: Dogs also have strong jaws that physically <strong>cannot</strong> move sideways (like your own can). This sideways grinding action is a feature that allows pre-digestion of plant material. Again, dogs rip off chunks and swallow them whole.</p> <p>-Lack of Salivary Amylase: Omnivores have this for pre-digestion of carbohydrates. Dogs and cats do not. The canine pancreas secretes amylase as a backup, however this does not mean they <em>should</em> be fed a high carbohydrate diet every day for a lifetime. Processed food (incl vegan) is 40-70% carbohydrate.</p> <p>-Lysozyme: Instead of amylase, dogs have lysozyme in their saliva which is an antibacterial. This may be useful for destroying any harmful bacteria in carrion/rotten food/feces, as well as wound cleaning.</p> <p>-Gut length: The canine gut is short in length which is because flesh must be pushed through quickly. It does not need to sit and ferment, as this could allow bacteria to multiply to harmful levels. Note that plant eating animals have a long digestive tract and even multiple stomach chambers in order for plant material to be slowly broken down by the necessary enzymes.</p> <p>-Nutrient profiles. Dogs have 0% biological requirement for carbohydrates. They gain every single essential nutrient from a prey based diet such as Whole Prey/Prey Model. Vegan diets are full of processed lab-made vitamins and minerals. Many vitamin pre-mixes are made in china and shipped to the country of manufacture.</p> <p>All in all, dogs will <em>survive</em> on a high carbohydrate diet but it will cause systemic effects eventually. Similar to smoking, a junk food diet affects every dog differently and some may be affected more severely than others, and in different time spans. You can also expect high vet fees in the form of dental cleanings, dental surgeries and various health problem later on in life.</p> <p>It is not recommended that you feed your pet the equivalent of a big mac for the entirety of its life. This is essentially what kibble and vegan diets are. Evolution has changed the appearance and even the behaviour of your dog, but their digestive system is still geared towards meat. <strong>Basically, you are paying money to have a company slowly kill your pet from the inside out. <br/></strong></p> <p><strong>0/10, Not Recommended.</strong></p> </blockquote> <p>Hard science here for anyone who needs to shut down a ‚Äúvegan pet owner.‚ÄĚ It‚Äôs abuse. Feed your animal the substances they evolved to eat or do not own an animal, it‚Äôs as simple as that.</p> </blockquote> <p>Vegan dog and cat owners who try to force their pets to be vegan are absolute trash and should be dragged as hard as possible for their dangerously bad beliefs.</p> </blockquote> <p><a class="tumblelog" href="https://tmblr.co/m6yjzgQMTLlgckIf5tMtRUA">@faofox</a> Don‚Äôt ever get a dog. Please. And if you have one, find a new home for it before you wind up killing it.</p></blockquote> <p>It is absolutely moronic to feed your carnivorous pets a vegan diet. Don‚Äôt you dare call yourself someone concerned with animal rights if you support starving an animal to death.</p>

noelleian: calleo: bogleech: raw-fed-pets: faofox: raw-fed-pets: All dogs share the same basic digestive system despite the range of ph...

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Bbb, Bilbo, and Drugs: INHIBIT CLASIFICATION ANTIBIOTICS Beta-Lactamase inhib Clavulanic Acid Penicinillase - Sensible Ampicillin Amoxicillin Aminopenicillins rum Natural Penicillins Penicillin G: Na, K, Procainic, Benzathine (IV, IM) Penicinillase - Resistant (very narrow spectrum) Antipseudomonal (extended spectrum) Penicillins (narrow spectrum) Penicillin VK: VO Oxacillin Dicloxacillin Carboxipenicillins Ureidopenicillins 1¬į Generation carcillin Carbenicillin Piperacillin Cephalexine Cephradrine Cefuroxime Cefadroxil Cefprozil Cefotetan 2¬į Generation Cefoperazone Ceftriaxone Cefpodoxime Ceftizoxime Ceftibuten Loracarbef Cefixime Cefotaxime Ceftazidime Cephalosporins 3¬į Generation Cefditoren Cefpirome* Ceftolozane 4¬į Generation Cefepime 5¬į Generation Carbapenems Monobactams Glycopeptides Meropenem Ertapenem DoripenemImipenem Cylastatine Aztreonam Telavancin Dalbavancin Oritavancin Isoniazid Vancomycin Daptomycin Gentamicin Neomycin Minocycline Demeclocylin* Tobramycin Amino glycosides Tetracyclins Streptomycin Doxycycline Tetracyclin Tigecyclirn Linezolid Oxazolidonones Streptogramins Quinupristin/Dalfopristin Cloramphenicol Macrolides Lincosamides 50S Erythromycin Azithromycin Clarithromycin Clindamycin Lincomycin DNA topoisomerases Moxifloxacin Ofloxacin Levofloxacin Enofloxacin Fluorquinolones Ciprofloxacin Norfloxacin Gemifloxacin Sparfloxacin Quinolones Nalidixic Acid Sulfonamides Sulfamethoxazole Ag Sulfadiazine Sulfasalazine Sulfisoxazole Trimethoprim (TMP) Metronidazole DHFR inhibitors Pyrimethamine DNA (damage) mRNA synth.Rifampim Nitroimidazoles <p><a href="http://mynotes4usmle.tumblr.com/post/94603349785/antibiotics-cheat-sheet-also-remember" class="tumblr_blog">mynotes4usmle</a>:</p> <blockquote><p><b>ANTIBIOTICS CHEAT SHEET :)</b></p> <p>Also, REMEMBER!!!!</p> <p><b>* Sulfonamides</b>¬†compete for albumin with:</p> <ul><li><b>Bilirrubin:¬†</b>given in 2¬į,3¬įT, high risk or indirect hyperBb and kernicterus in premies</li> <li><b>Warfarin:¬†</b>increases toxicity: bleeding</li> </ul><p>*¬†<b>Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Suceptible:</b></p> <ul><li>Natural Penicillins (G, V, F, K)</li> <li>Aminopenicillins (Amoxicillin, Ampicillin)</li> <li>Antipseudomonal Penicillins (Ticarcillin, Piperacillin)</li> </ul><p>*¬†<b>Beta-lactamase (penicinillase) Resistant:</b></p> <ul><li>Oxacillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin</li> <li>3¬įG, 4¬įG Cephalosporins</li> <li>Carbapenems¬†</li> <li>Monobactams</li> <li>Beta-lactamase inhibitors</li> </ul><p><b>* Penicillins</b>¬†enhanced with:</p> <ul><li><b>Clavulanic acid &amp; Sulbactam</b>¬†(both are suicide inhibitors, they inhibit beta-lactamase)</li> <li><b>Aminoglycosides</b>¬†(against enterococcus and psedomonas)</li> </ul><p>*¬†<b>Aminoglycosides¬†</b>enhanced with¬†<b>Aztreonam</b></p> <p><b>*</b>¬†Penicillins: renal clearance EXCEPT¬†<b>Oxacillin &amp; Nafcillin¬†</b>(bile)</p> <p><b>*</b>¬†Cephalosporines: renal clearance EXCEPT¬†<b>Cefoperazone &amp; Cefrtriaxone¬†</b>(bile)</p> <p>* Both inhibited by¬†<b>Probenecid</b>¬†during tubular secretion.</p> <p><b>* 2¬įG Cephalosporines:¬†</b>none¬†cross BBB except¬†<b>Cefuroxime</b></p> <p><b>* 3¬įG Cephalosporines:¬†</b>all cross BBB except¬†<b>Cefoperazone</b>¬†bc is highly highly lipid soluble, so is protein bound in plasma, therefore it doesn‚Äôt cross BBB.</p> <p><b>* Cephalosporines¬†</b>are¬†&quot;<b>LAME</b>‚Äú bc they¬†¬†do¬†<b>not cover</b>¬†this organisms¬†</p> <ul><li><b>L ¬†</b>isteria monocytogenes</li> <li><b>A ¬†</b>typicals (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia)</li> <li><b>M¬†</b>RSA¬†<b>(except Ceftaroline, 5¬įG)</b></li> <li><b>E¬†</b>¬†nterococci</li> </ul><figure class="tmblr-full" data-orig-height="282" data-orig-width="500" data-orig-src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/fefa0e57bd8663f41e32258e9f58f135/tumblr_inline_mvv7hx19421r9he9m.gif"><img src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/cdf6c898d35c4d91aa1f3e6bd9a98462/tumblr_inline_p7g6owpmSr1scxgwx_540.gif" alt="image" data-orig-height="282" data-orig-width="500" data-orig-src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/fefa0e57bd8663f41e32258e9f58f135/tumblr_inline_mvv7hx19421r9he9m.gif"/></figure><p>* Disulfiram-like effect:¬†<b>Cefotetan¬†</b>&amp;¬†<b>Cefoperazone¬†</b>(<i><b><a href="http://mynotes4usmle.tumblr.com/post/72610336163/drugs-that-cause-disulfiram-like-effects-mnemonic#.U98PPPl5Mms">mnemonic</a></b></i>)<b><br/></b></p> <p><b>* Cefoperanzone:¬†</b>all the exceptions!!!</p> <ul><li>All 3¬įG cephalosporins cross the BBB except Cefoperazone.</li> <li>All¬†cephalosporins are renal cleared, except Cefoperazone.</li> <li>Disulfiram-like effect</li> </ul><p>* Against¬†<b><i>Pseudomonas</i></b>:</p> <ul><li>3¬įG¬†<b>Cef taz idime¬†</b>(taz taz taz taz)</li> <li>4¬įG¬†<b>Cefepime, Cefpirome¬†</b>(not available in the USA)</li> <li><b>Antipseudomonal penicillins</b></li> <li><b>Aminoglycosides¬†</b>(synergy with beta-lactams)</li> <li><b>Aztreonam¬†</b>(pseudomonal sepsis)</li> </ul><p>* Covers¬†<b>MRSA:¬†</b><b>Ceftaroline¬†</b>(rhymes w/ Caroline, Caroline the 5¬įG Ceph),¬†<b>Vancomycin,¬†</b><b>Daptomycin,¬†</b><b>Linezolid,¬†</b><b>Tigecycline.</b></p> <p><b>*¬†</b>Covers¬†<b>VRSA: Linezolid, Dalfopristin/Quinupristin</b></p> <p><b>* Aminoglycosides:</b>¬†decrease release of ACh in synapse and act as a Neuromuscular blocker, this is why it enhances effects of muscle relaxants.</p> <p><b>* DEMECLOCYCLINE:¬†</b>tetracycline that‚Äôs not used as an AB, it is used as tx of SIADH to cause Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (inhibits the V2 receptor in collecting ducts)</p> <p>* Phototoxicity:¬†<b>Q</b>¬†ue<b>¬†S T¬†</b>¬†ion?</p> <ul><li><b>Q¬†</b>uinolones</li> <li><b>S</b>ulfonamides</li> <li><b>T</b>¬†etracyclines</li> </ul><figure class="tmblr-full" data-orig-height="281" data-orig-width="500" data-orig-src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/7af835b2dc618c0aac3a1186d5ee68fb/tumblr_inline_n9rlcbPQ271r9he9m.gif"><img src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/7af835b2dc618c0aac3a1186d5ee68fb/tumblr_inline_p7g6owDZDE1scxgwx_540.gif" alt="image" data-orig-height="281" data-orig-width="500" data-orig-src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/7af835b2dc618c0aac3a1186d5ee68fb/tumblr_inline_n9rlcbPQ271r9he9m.gif"/></figure><p>* <b><a href="http://mynotes4usmle.tumblr.com/post/62061356766/cyp450-inducers-inhibitors-mnemonic#.U-RmDfl5Mms">p450 inhibitors</a>:</b> Cloramphenicol, Macrolides (except Azithromycin), Sulfonamides</p> <p>* <b>Macrolides SE: Motilin</b> stimulation, <b>QT prolongation</b>, reversible <b>deafness</b>, <b>eosinophilia</b>, <b>cholestatic</b> hepatitis</p> <p>*¬†<b>Bactericidal:¬†</b>beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems), aminoglycosides, fluorquinolones, metronidazole.</p> <p><b>* Baceriostatic:¬†</b>tetracyclins, streptogramins, chloramphenicol, lincosamides, oxazolidonones, macrolides, sulfonamides, DHFR inhibitors.</p> <p>*¬†<b>Pseudomembranous colitis:¬†</b>Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin.</p> <p>*¬†<b>QT prolongation:¬†</b>macrolides, sometimes fluoroquinolones</p></blockquote>

mynotes4usmle: ANTIBIOTICS CHEAT SHEET :) Also, REMEMBER!!!! * Sulfonamides¬†compete for albumin with: Bilirrubin:¬†given in 2¬į,3¬įT, high ris...

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