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<p><a href="http://stillwaitingforaliens.tumblr.com/post/162206601056/libertarirynn-portraitsofsaints-happy-birthday" class="tumblr_blog">stillwaitingforaliens</a>:</p><blockquote> <p><a href="https://libertarirynn.tumblr.com/post/162205580869/portraitsofsaints-happy-birthday-the-nativity-of" class="tumblr_blog">libertarirynn</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a href="http://portraitsofsaints.tumblr.com/post/162198615092/happy-birthday-the-nativity-of-st-john-the" class="tumblr_blog">portraitsofsaints</a>:</p> <blockquote> <h2>HAPPY BIRTHDAY<br/>The Nativity of St. John the Baptist<br/>Saint John the Baptist</h2> <p><b>Died: 30 AD<br/>Feast day: June 24 (birth) August 29 (death)<br/>Patronage: convulsions, epilepsy, hailstorms, baptism, converts, lambs, Jordan<br/><br/>John the Baptist was the son of Zachary and Elizabeth and cousin of Jesus. John began his ministry around age 27, preaching a message of repentance to the people of Jerusalem. He converted many and prepared the way for the coming of Jesus. He Baptized Christ, after which he stepped away and told his disciples to follow Jesus. Imprisoned by King Herod and was beheaded.</b></p> <p><a href="https://www.portraitsofsaints.com/collections/all/all-images-st-john-the-baptist"><b>{website}</b></a></p> </blockquote> <p>Idk about Catholics but the Orthodox have like 4 or 5 feast days for St. John, including a few foe discoveries and rediscoveries of his head.</p> </blockquote> <p>I’m Roman Catholic, and I’d love to hear more about these Orthodox feast days for St. John’s head.</p> </blockquote> <p>We celebrate five feast days for St. John the Baptist: his birth, his death, and the first, second, and third finding of his precious head (I’m not being weird they literally call it “precious head”). </p><blockquote><p>First and Second Finding of the Head of St. John the Baptist (February 24). According to church tradition, after the execution of John the Baptist, his disciples buried his body at Sebaste, but Herodias took his severed head and buried it in a dung heap. Later, Saint Joanna, who was married to Herod’s steward,[6] secretly took his head and buried it on the Mount of Olives, where it remained hidden for centuries. </p><p>The First Finding occurred in the fourth century. The property on the Mount of Olives where the head was buried eventually passed into the possession of a government official who became a monk with the name of Innocent. He built a church and a monastic cell there. When he started to dig the foundation, the vessel with the head of John the Baptist was uncovered, but fearful that the relic might be abused by unbelievers, he hid it again in the same place it had been found. Upon his death, the church fell into ruin and was destroyed.</p> <p>The Second Finding occurred in the year 452. During the days of Constantine the Great, two monks on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem reportedly saw visions of John the Baptist, who revealed to them the location of his head. They uncovered the relic, placed it in a sack and proceeded home. Along the way, they encountered an unnamed potter and gave him the bag to carry, not telling him what it was. John the Baptist appeared to him and ordered him to flee from the careless and lazy monks, with what he held in his hands. He did so and took the head home with him. Before his death, he placed it in a container and gave it to his sister. After some time, a hieromonk by the name of Eustathius, an Arian, came into possession of it, using it to attract followers to his teaching. He buried the head in a cave, near Emesa. Eventually, a monastery was built at that place. In the year 452, St. John the Baptist appeared to Archimandrite Marcellus of this monastery and indicated where his head was hidden in a water jar buried in the earth. The relic was brought into the city of Emesa and was later transferred to Constantinople.</p> <p>Third Finding of the Head of St. John the Baptist (May 25). The head was transferred to Comana of Cappadocia during a period of Muslim raids (about 820), and it was hidden in the ground during a period of iconoclastic persecution. When the veneration of icons was restored in 850, Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople (847-857) saw in a vision the place where the head of St. John had been hidden. The patriarch communicated this to the emperor Michael III, who sent a delegation to Comana, where the head was found. Afterwards, the head was again transferred to Nyc, and here on May 25, it was placed in a church at the court.</p></blockquote> (Source: Wikipedia): HAP ST.JO ST RACYLCHRISTIANSON WWw.PoRTR cww.RISTT RAITSOESAINTS.COM <p><a href="http://stillwaitingforaliens.tumblr.com/post/162206601056/libertarirynn-portraitsofsaints-happy-birthday" class="tumblr_blog">stillwaitingforaliens</a>:</p><blockquote> <p><a href="https://libertarirynn.tumblr.com/post/162205580869/portraitsofsaints-happy-birthday-the-nativity-of" class="tumblr_blog">libertarirynn</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a href="http://portraitsofsaints.tumblr.com/post/162198615092/happy-birthday-the-nativity-of-st-john-the" class="tumblr_blog">portraitsofsaints</a>:</p> <blockquote> <h2>HAPPY BIRTHDAY<br/>The Nativity of St. John the Baptist<br/>Saint John the Baptist</h2> <p><b>Died: 30 AD<br/>Feast day: June 24 (birth) August 29 (death)<br/>Patronage: convulsions, epilepsy, hailstorms, baptism, converts, lambs, Jordan<br/><br/>John the Baptist was the son of Zachary and Elizabeth and cousin of Jesus. John began his ministry around age 27, preaching a message of repentance to the people of Jerusalem. He converted many and prepared the way for the coming of Jesus. He Baptized Christ, after which he stepped away and told his disciples to follow Jesus. Imprisoned by King Herod and was beheaded.</b></p> <p><a href="https://www.portraitsofsaints.com/collections/all/all-images-st-john-the-baptist"><b>{website}</b></a></p> </blockquote> <p>Idk about Catholics but the Orthodox have like 4 or 5 feast days for St. John, including a few foe discoveries and rediscoveries of his head.</p> </blockquote> <p>I’m Roman Catholic, and I’d love to hear more about these Orthodox feast days for St. John’s head.</p> </blockquote> <p>We celebrate five feast days for St. John the Baptist: his birth, his death, and the first, second, and third finding of his precious head (I’m not being weird they literally call it “precious head”). </p><blockquote><p>First and Second Finding of the Head of St. John the Baptist (February 24). According to church tradition, after the execution of John the Baptist, his disciples buried his body at Sebaste, but Herodias took his severed head and buried it in a dung heap. Later, Saint Joanna, who was married to Herod’s steward,[6] secretly took his head and buried it on the Mount of Olives, where it remained hidden for centuries. </p><p>The First Finding occurred in the fourth century. The property on the Mount of Olives where the head was buried eventually passed into the possession of a government official who became a monk with the name of Innocent. He built a church and a monastic cell there. When he started to dig the foundation, the vessel with the head of John the Baptist was uncovered, but fearful that the relic might be abused by unbelievers, he hid it again in the same place it had been found. Upon his death, the church fell into ruin and was destroyed.</p> <p>The Second Finding occurred in the year 452. During the days of Constantine the Great, two monks on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem reportedly saw visions of John the Baptist, who revealed to them the location of his head. They uncovered the relic, placed it in a sack and proceeded home. Along the way, they encountered an unnamed potter and gave him the bag to carry, not telling him what it was. John the Baptist appeared to him and ordered him to flee from the careless and lazy monks, with what he held in his hands. He did so and took the head home with him. Before his death, he placed it in a container and gave it to his sister. After some time, a hieromonk by the name of Eustathius, an Arian, came into possession of it, using it to attract followers to his teaching. He buried the head in a cave, near Emesa. Eventually, a monastery was built at that place. In the year 452, St. John the Baptist appeared to Archimandrite Marcellus of this monastery and indicated where his head was hidden in a water jar buried in the earth. The relic was brought into the city of Emesa and was later transferred to Constantinople.</p> <p>Third Finding of the Head of St. John the Baptist (May 25). The head was transferred to Comana of Cappadocia during a period of Muslim raids (about 820), and it was hidden in the ground during a period of iconoclastic persecution. When the veneration of icons was restored in 850, Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople (847-857) saw in a vision the place where the head of St. John had been hidden. The patriarch communicated this to the emperor Michael III, who sent a delegation to Comana, where the head was found. Afterwards, the head was again transferred to Nyc, and here on May 25, it was placed in a church at the court.</p></blockquote> (Source: Wikipedia)

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<p><a href="http://portraitsofsaints.tumblr.com/post/162198615092/happy-birthday-the-nativity-of-st-john-the" class="tumblr_blog">portraitsofsaints</a>:</p><blockquote> <h2>HAPPY BIRTHDAY<br/>The Nativity of St. John the Baptist<br/>Saint John the Baptist</h2> <p><b>Died: 30 AD<br/>Feast day: June 24 (birth) August 29 (death)<br/>Patronage: convulsions, epilepsy, hailstorms, baptism, converts, lambs, Jordan<br/><br/>John the Baptist was the son of Zachary and Elizabeth and cousin of Jesus. John began his ministry around age 27, preaching a message of repentance to the people of Jerusalem. He converted many and prepared the way for the coming of Jesus. He Baptized Christ, after which he stepped away and told his disciples to follow Jesus. Imprisoned by King Herod and was beheaded.</b></p> <p><a href="https://www.portraitsofsaints.com/collections/all/all-images-st-john-the-baptist"><b>{website}</b></a></p> </blockquote> <p>Idk about Catholics but the Orthodox have like 4 or 5 feast days for St. John, including a few foe discoveries and rediscoveries of his head.</p>: HAP ST.JO ST RACYLCHRISTIANSON WWw.PoRTR cww.RISTT RAITSOESAINTS.COM <p><a href="http://portraitsofsaints.tumblr.com/post/162198615092/happy-birthday-the-nativity-of-st-john-the" class="tumblr_blog">portraitsofsaints</a>:</p><blockquote> <h2>HAPPY BIRTHDAY<br/>The Nativity of St. John the Baptist<br/>Saint John the Baptist</h2> <p><b>Died: 30 AD<br/>Feast day: June 24 (birth) August 29 (death)<br/>Patronage: convulsions, epilepsy, hailstorms, baptism, converts, lambs, Jordan<br/><br/>John the Baptist was the son of Zachary and Elizabeth and cousin of Jesus. John began his ministry around age 27, preaching a message of repentance to the people of Jerusalem. He converted many and prepared the way for the coming of Jesus. He Baptized Christ, after which he stepped away and told his disciples to follow Jesus. Imprisoned by King Herod and was beheaded.</b></p> <p><a href="https://www.portraitsofsaints.com/collections/all/all-images-st-john-the-baptist"><b>{website}</b></a></p> </blockquote> <p>Idk about Catholics but the Orthodox have like 4 or 5 feast days for St. John, including a few foe discoveries and rediscoveries of his head.</p>

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<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p> </blockquote> <p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p> </blockquote> <p>but why</p> </blockquote> <p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p> </blockquote> <p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p> </blockquote> <p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p> </blockquote> <p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p> </blockquote> <p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p> <p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p> <p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p> <p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p> <p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p> <p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p> </blockquote> <p>FYI.</p>: In ancient Egypt, any books found in ships coming into port, would be brought immediately to the library of Alexandria and be copied. The original would be kept in the library and the copy given back to the owner. Ultrafacts.tumblr.com <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p> </blockquote> <p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p> </blockquote> <p>but why</p> </blockquote> <p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p> </blockquote> <p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p> </blockquote> <p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p> </blockquote> <p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p> </blockquote> <p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p> <p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p> <p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p> <p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p> <p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p> <p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p> </blockquote> <p>FYI.</p>

<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <block...

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<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p> </blockquote> <p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p> </blockquote> <p>but why</p> </blockquote> <p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p> </blockquote> <p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p> </blockquote> <p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p> </blockquote> <p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p> </blockquote> <p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p> <p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p> <p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p> <p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p> <p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p> <p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p> </blockquote> <p>#getrekt</p>: In ancient Egypt, any books found in ships coming into port, would be brought immediately to the library of Alexandria and be copied. The original would be kept in the library and the copy given back to the owner. Ultrafacts.tumblr.com <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://slvrnightx.tumblr.com/post/97271985185/ultrafacts-aussietory">slvrnightx</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/97269070131/aussietory-third-way-is-best-way">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://aussietory.tumblr.com/post/97037485207/third-way-is-best-way-tuxedoandex">aussietory</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://third-way-is-best-way.tumblr.com/post/97026410042/tuxedoandex-kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts">third-way-is-best-way</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://tuxedoandex.tumblr.com/post/97009990157/kvotheunkvothe-ultrafacts-source-for-more">tuxedoandex</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://kvotheunkvothe.tumblr.com/post/91996111874/ultrafacts-source-for-more-facts-follow">kvotheunkvothe</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://ultrafactsblog.com/post/91744814059/source-for-more-facts-follow-ultrafacts">ultrafacts</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria#Destruction_of_the_Library">Source</a> <strong>For more facts <a href="http://ultrafacts.tumblr.com/">follow Ultrafacts</a></strong></p> </blockquote> <p>EVERY TIME SOMEONE BRINGS UP THE LIBRARY OF ALEXANDRIA I GET <strong>SO ANGRY</strong>.</p> </blockquote> <p>but why</p> </blockquote> <p>Because it got burned. All of that knowledge, lost forever.</p> </blockquote> <p><img alt="" src="https://78.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lkdeee4gtd1qd4jgjo1_500.jpg"/></p> </blockquote> <p>The library was destroyed over 1000’s of years ago. The library consisted of thousands of scrolls and books about mathematics, engineering, physiology, geography, blueprints, medicine, plays, &amp; important scriptures. Thinkers from all over the Mediterranean used to come to Alexandria to study.Most of the major work of civilization up until that point was lost. If the library still survived till this day, society may have been more advanced and we would sure know more about the ancient world.</p> </blockquote> <p>I get so sad whenever I think about this.</p> </blockquote> <p>Good God Almighty, not this “Christians ruined knowledge 4ever” bullhockey again. I am <em><strong>so</strong> </em>tired of this overused narrative.</p> <p>Firstly, the destruction of the Library has not been attributed to a specific event. The Library had been in decline years before Jesus was even born. Multiple Roman scholars, including <a href="http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14140/14140-h/14140-h.htm#LIFE_OF_C_CAESAR">Plutarch</a> (XLIX.435), <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Roman_History/Book_XXII#XVI">Ammianus Marcellinus</a>, <a href="http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2007.01.0072:id=v2.p.139">Aulus Gellius</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Of_Peace_of_Mind#IX.">Seneca</a>, record the destruction of books in Alexandria, all placing the events before Christians even existed (Plutarch and Ammian specifically attribute the burning of the Library to Julius Caesar burning his ships in his siege of Alexandria, while Aulus Gellius adds an earlier removal of books by the Persians). Ammian especially hints to the faded glory of Alexandria’s libraries, especially the Serapeum (which also functioned as a temple to the Graeco-Egyptian god Serapis). Further historians attribute the destruction of the library to the ruin of <a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=WR9bsvhc4XMC&amp;pg=PA20&amp;lpg=PA20&amp;dq=Brucheion+aurelian&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=idw91tlzf4&amp;sig=bVBajSGaeEQJzGAo8mJZt7uI5c4&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ei=IoGrVM-LNISlNuzGgLgK&amp;ved=0CCwQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&amp;q=Brucheion%20aurelian&amp;f=false">Brucheion</a> (the location of the Library) Aurelian’s war against the Palmyrene Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.</p> <p>Two more events are often mentioned as the destruction of the Library. The first is the <a href="http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_and_Post-Nicene_Fathers:_Series_II/Volume_II/Socrates/Book_V/Chapter_16">complete destruction of the Serapeum</a> by Coptic Pope Theophilus in 391 AD, as part of his decree to destroy all the pagan temples of the city. The ecclesiastical historian Socrates of Constantinople gives no mention of the books, while lesser-known Christian historian Paulus Orosius (VI.263) <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=O3tJ9mFnwpQC&amp;pg=PA228&amp;source=gbs_toc_r&amp;cad=3#v=snippet&amp;q=book%20chests&amp;f=false">notes</a> that the books burned (of which he laments) were not the same as the original collection of the Library. The other event is the Caliphate’s invasion of Egypt in 642 AD. The destruction of the Library is dubiously recorded by <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/10/abd-al-latifs-account-of-egypt-and-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Abd al-Latif al Baghdadi</a> and <a href="http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/2010/09/24/al-qifti-on-the-destruction-of-the-library-of-alexandria/">Ibn al-Qifti</a>, who both claim that ‘Amr ibn al-‘As destroyed the Library by the orders of Caliph Umar. So many burnings, but not one has been definitively set as <em>the </em>destruction of the Library.</p> <p>But enough about the Library. The problem is this false idea of Christianity (especially Catholicism, since we all know that’s the Church attacked for the so-called “Dark Ages”) being absolutely opposed to scholarly and scientific knowledge. One need only read <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/summa/3002.htm#article4">Aquinas</a> and <a href="http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_15101998_fides-et-ratio_en.html">John Paul II</a> to see that the tradition of the Church has been <em>fides et ratio</em>, faith and reason, that science and religion are not enemies and should not be viewed as such. Much knowledge was lost in the drawn-out destruction of the Library of Alexandria, but Christianity also preserved much knowledge. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_Library_of_Constantinople">The Imperial Library of Constantinople</a> housed a large collection of Roman and Greek works, begun at the behest of Christian Emperor Constantius II in the 4th Century. Socrates and Plato were vastly influential on the thought of Augustine and Boethius. Many of the Church Fathers, even after Saint Augustine, as well as various authors and poets throughout the Middle Ages, knew well the works of Vergil, Cicero, Sallust, Horace, and Seneca the Younger. Saint Isidore of Seville, bishop and Doctor of the Church, sought to compile and preserve a summary of a large majority of the knowledge of Western antiquity, known as the <em><a href="http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3ep502syZv8C">Etymologiae</a></em>. The medievals still studied the writings of <a href="http://historyofinformation.com/expanded.php?id=2749">Euclid</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_of_Cremona#Gerard.27s_translations">Archimedes</a>, and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eugenius_of_Palermo&amp;redirect=no">Ptolemy</a>. Modern civil law has its roots in the <em>Corpus Juris Civilis </em>(“The Body of Civil Law”), the collection of Roman jurisprudence compiled by the Byzantine Christian Emperor Justinian. Still more Christian writers such as <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08459b.htm">Saint John Damascene</a> and <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01276a.htm">Alcuin of York</a> preserved classical learning and expanded the fields of philosophy and theology.</p> <p>The chart especially ignores the contributions to learning made by Western European Christians (i.e. Catholics) throughout the Middle Ages, including the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_Renaissance">Carolingian Renaissance</a> and especially the advances of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Middle_Ages">High Middle Ages</a>. These include the renaissance of architecture (namely the “Gothic” style of the 12th Century), the reinterpretation of Aristotelian learning (especially in terms of renewed interest in dialectics and syllogistic logic) by the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13548a.htm">Scholastics</a>, and the foundations of the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15188a.htm">modern university system</a> (the development of which was <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madrasa#Madrasa_and_university">independent of the Islamic <em>madrasa</em></a>), with the oldest in continual use being the <a href="http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02641b.htm">University of Bologna</a> (since the 11th Century).</p> <p>The chart, and by extension the general sentiment, is also <em>incredibly </em>Eurocentric (in a demeaning way) and <em>vastly</em> oblivious to the advances of other peoples throughout the world, including the Islamic Caliphate, the Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties in China, and Late Classical India. Many of those civilizations did not suffer such a loss of learning as perceived in Western Europe. The entire idea is distasteful and ignorant.</p> </blockquote> <p>#getrekt</p>

<p><a class="tumblr_blog" href="http://agentsama.tumblr.com/post/107299905099/slvrnightx-ultrafacts-aussietory">agentsama</a>:</p> <block...

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